الأربعين في فضل الرحمة والراحمين

 لابن طولون الصالحي

Forty Hadiths on Mercy and Those Who Are Merciful

Compiled by

Shamsudeen Mohammad Ibn Tulun Al Damishqi Al Salihi

Student Notes based on Translation and Commentary by

Sheikh Gibril Haddad

SeekersGuidance Course Fall 2013



List of Footnotes Only [Complete Text here]


[1] This text is based on the Chester Beatty manuscript kept in the United States, with a copy in Riyadh and Cairo. The Chester Beatty Manuscript is an autographed manuscript. An autographed manuscript is the most reliable text as it by the hand of the author. The only manuscript that can be more reliable is one written at the end of the life of the author, as no further corrections can be made.

The introduction is not included in the online text, which can be found at: http://library.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=1006

[2] A Biography of Imam Tulun is available at:

http://mamluk.uchicago.edu/MSR_VIII-1_2004-Conermann_pp115-139.pdf

[3] May Allah make us of them and encompass us in His Mercy, in every moment of our lives and after our lives.

[4] i.e., from the mark of anger and wrath.

[5] Protection from His anger is mercy and if we are protected from the evil of our own actions that is the great victory. “Whoever O Allah you protect from their own evil (on the day of resurrection), truly You have granted them mercy, and truly is the greatest success” (Quran)

[6] Most of the early books he read were at the hands of his brother.

[7] This chain is a double Musalsal chain of narration, i.e., All the narrators in the chain are from Salihiyyah and this hadith is the first hadith they heard from their teachers. As well,  Syed Abu Al Khair Mohammad and his sons were all Hanafi and of the Naqshabandi Tariqa.

[8] Sheikh Jalaluldeen Yusuf Al Magribi is the father of Sheikh Badrudin Al Hasani.

[9] Sheikh Qaruq’ji is from Tripoli, Lebanon. He is a great sufi musnid and sheikh of hadith. He wrote many books on Tasawuuf, Hadith and Hadith transmission.

[10] Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin (1198–1252 AH / 1783–1836 AD), author of Hashiyah Ibn Ibidin.

[11] Son of Sheikh Ismail Nablusi, the Mufti of Shafiiyyah of Damascus, who was one of the students of Ibn Tulun. It is around this time that Sheikh Safarini and Sheikh Abdul Ghani Al Nablusi connect to Ibn Tulun.

[12] All chains of narration for this Hadith combine from this point onwards.

[13] Yusuf Ibn Abdul Hadi, Also known as Ibn Mibrad or Abu Al’ Mahasin. He lived a short, productive life. He was a huge authority in the Hanbali Madhab and a Sufi. Among his notable books is Bad’ Al Ilqah Bi Lafs Al Khilqah (A book on the Sufi Cloak), wherein he mentions the Qadiri transmission chain of Sheikh Taqi ud Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah. He mentions with his chain through Ibn Nasir Ud Deen Al Dimasqhi that Sheikh Ibn Taymiyah took the Qadiri Tariqa from the Bani Qudama brothers, with only one mans between them and Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani. He like, Ibn Tulun, is buried in Mount Qasyoun.

[14] From hereon the chain reconnects with Sheikh Zain Ud Deen al Iraqi who’s name is Sheikh Abdul Raheem Ibn Hussain. Usually Ibn Iraqi refers to the son of Sheikh Ibn Iraqi. But Abu Fadl is the father, usually known as Al Iraqi.

[15] There is a narrator missing in the chain at this point.

[16] ‘Those’, i.e., the angels or Allah in the sense of the Lord of the heavens and the earth. ‘In heaven’, i.e., exalted, and Allah knows best. There is also a variation in harakah (vowels) of Yarha’mu’kum, with dhamma. It can also be read with sukoon; Yarham’kum, as jawabul’shart (conditional sentence). i.e., “If you give mercy to people on earth, then the one in heaven or those in heaven...” The last hadith in this book is, “The whole matter of divine creation and design is built on mercy.” This hadith is the keynote of the choice of hadith for this book. If we are in the dark, then we will be inviting people to the dark.

[17] Al Mardawi, author of Al Insaf, great encyclopaedia of Hanbali Fiqh and comparative Fiqh. Like Ibn Qudama’s Al Mughni, Imam Nawawi’s Al Majmu’, Ibn Rushd’s Bidayatul Mujtahid. Published in several volumes.

Ibn Tulun uses Akhbarana min lafdihi (narrated to us), is the sense of Hadathana.

[18] Also knowm as Salimi. Ba’ali, ie. From Ba’ala’bak in Lebanon.

[19] Can be pronounced Sarakh’si or Sar’khasi.

[20] Al-Firbari: The greatest transmitter of the manual of Imam Bukhari.

[21] Aqra Ibn Habis Al Tamimi is a Sahabi; one of the great leaders and military commandars who fought alongside Kahlid Ibn Walid. Khalid Ibn Walid trusted him and relied upon him.

[22] Style of the Hadith is called Mujalasa or Musakala, i.e. when the same term is mentioned in close proximity and with an economy of words and rhyming quality, i.e alliteration. Also known as cognates [words that have a common etymological origin] in stylistics. There is economy of words (lafdhan) but lavish meanings (ma’nan).

Sheikh Haddad notes, “The Arch Rhetorician or The Schemer's Skimmer: a handbook of late Arabic badi' drawn from 'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulsi's Nafahat al-azhar 'ala nasamat al-ashar by Pierre Cachia at Columbia University.

[23] i.e., Al Mardawi mentioned in hadith No. 2, where in Ibn Uthman is mentioned, who is his great grant father.

[24] Ibn Tulun gives part names for narrators in various places as it is economical. Imam Bukhari and others do this as well in their texts so as not to weigh down the text. This is a sub-discipline in hadith.

[25] This is presumably Al Dyar Maratil Numan.

[26] Same as Al Hussain Ibn Mubarak in earlier Hadith.

[27] Same as أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ السَّرْخَسِيُّ in hadith No. 2.

[28] Imam Bukhari: His full name is Abu Abdillah Mohammad Ibn Ismail Al Bukhari Al Joe’fi Al Hafidh. His father’s name is Ibn Mughira Bardizbah.

[29] This hadith has the same wording as hadith No. 2 and it has been narrated by more than two companions on different occasions, which shows the importance of the directive.

[30] أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَمَوِيُّ is the same as أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ السَّرْخَسِيُّ in hadith No.2 and عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ in hadith No.3.

[31] Imam Bukhari.

[32] This is Al Fadl Ibn Buqaii, famous Imam, also known as Abu Nuaym in the books of Imam Bukhari and Muslim. When he was tortured by the Mutazili government regarding the creation of the Quran, he said, “I care less for my neck than this shirt button and I say that the Quran is not created, so do what you like”. Imam Ahmad was imprisoned for 28 months on the same issue.

[33] Mutual because the ta’fa’ala form of the verb in Arabic has an implicit meaning of reciprocity.

[34] i.e., Until the body feels better.

[35] Ibn Mibrad, أَبُو الْمَحَاسِنِ يُوسُفُ بْنُ حَسَنِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَسَنٍ الصَّالِحِيُّ from hadith No. 1.

[36] Imam You’naniyah, famous scribe and meticulous editor of Sahih Bukhari. The Younaniyah edition of Sahahi Bukhari comes from him. He was from Ba’ala’bak and moved to Salihiyah.

[37] Al Hajjar, mentioned previously.

[38] Known as Abu Waqt Al Sijzi mentioned previously. Very well known hadith scholar. Al Soyufi might be a textual corruption (Tasheef).

[39] Imam Bukhari.

[40] Zaid Ibn Aslam: a great Imam of the Tabi’ Tabeen and his father is a Tabii. His son, Abdul Rahman Ibn Zaid Ibn Aslam is a great Mufassir, upright, reliable as a scholar. but very weak in hadith. His father and grant father were much stronger in hadith.

[41] There is a variation in the text of Imam Bukhari, wherein the word is ‘nursing’ (tasqi), which makes more sense, but ‘running’ (tas’aa) is also appropriate in the context of the hadith.

[42] Could be read ‘Do you see’ (A’Ta’raw’na - Ra’a - Yara in the active form) or (A’Tu’raw’na -in the passive form) do you consider, second one seems more appropriate in this context. In other versions of the narration there was a fire or food was being cooked near by.

[43] Lit: No, as long as she is able not to do so.

[44] In Sheikh Gibril’s text, there is a ‘Lam’ of emphasis at the beginning of the last sentence (Law-LLahu), which also conveys an oath: Surely, I swear by Allah!

[45] Different Mardawi than one mentioned in earlier hadith.

[46] Should be Bardis no Bardas.

[47] Al Farawi, the Musnid of Makkah Al Mukkaramah.

[48] Abu Husain Farisi Abdul Ghafir ibn Muhammad, the author of abridgment of Tarikh Nisabur by Hakim.

[49] Abu Ishaq of Nisaburi, mentioned earlier.

[50] Salman Al Farsi.

[51] i.e., the heavens and the earths – singular in form and plural in meaning.

[52] i.e., all of the observable universe (the first heaven), or extent of the cosmos, ( to convey magnification and magnificence).

[53] i.e., Allah will bring that mercy and complete it with the other ninety nine mercies, fully lavished on creation.

[54] Al Biqaii Ibn Muhammad Al Imaad Al Amadi: Ibn Tulun’s great sheikh.

[55] Ibn Ahmad Ibn Asakir al Dimishqi. His grand father, Abu Al Qasim wrote more than 500 books.

[56] Shawiri, might me a mistake in writing. Should be Al Farawi as in Hadith No. 8.

[57] Abu Husain Farisi Abdul Ghafir ibn Muhammad, mentioned in Hadith No. 6.

[58] Imam Muslim: His full name is Abu Husain Muslim Ibn Hajjaj Al Qushairi Al Nisaburi.

[59] 100 special mercies are mentioned and there are more. (Tamtheel)

[60] i.e. reserved for the day of resurrection. What we have is nothing in comparison to what is to come and the mercy of Allah that is promised to us. This hadith conveys an image of what we have is very little and what Allah has for us is huge. Sheikh Gibril recommended looking up the Book of Iman in Sahih Muslim (hadith 361<-362, 363, 364, 365…) , the Chapter on the Lowest Level of the People of Paradise regarding the story of the last person to leave hellfire and brought into paradise, to understand the immense divine mercy.

[61] Likely means heard at the age of two when he was present.

[62] Ibn Asakir.

[63] Al Tusi.

[64] Imam Muslim.

[65]Al Kharifi, not Imam Bukhari.

[66] Al Haythami in Majma Al Zawa’id said its narrators are trustworthy.

[67] Rare book by Imam Bayhaqi which has received two beautiful editions.

[68] Great Shafi scholar, author of Kitabul Shariah.

[69] i.e., generic mercy, no longer countable. Mercy, its quality, such as…

[70] i.e., will try to look taller.

[71] Four Sahabi (Abu Hurayra, Hydayfa Ibn Yaman, Ibn Masud, Abu Saeed Al Khudri) narrated this hadith. Also mursal from Al Nakhaii, the great Tabii.

[72] Another variation, “...his chest will shake from what he sees of the Mercy of Allah and the intersession of the intercessors.” This segment is narrated from Hudayfa Ibn Yaman, Abu Hurayra, Ibn Masud, Abu Sa’ad Al Khudri and as mursal by Ibrahim Al Nakha’i, the Tabii

[73] It aligns with the hadith of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), “If you do not give mercy, you will not be granted mercy...”

[74] Abu Ishaq Al Zahid.

[75] Do not know if there is proof in the Quran or Hadith but the scholar deduced it from the hadith about the community of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) being half of the people of paradise.

[76] Shams is missing in the online text. Shams as Laqab for Shamsudin. Others names can be shortened as well, for e.g., Badr/Badri for Badrudin, Hammouya, Al Hammawi.  

[77] Abu Al Fadl Ibn Asakir

[78] Previously mentioned Ibn Abdul Ghafir in Hadith No. 8 is incorrect. It is Abul Hussain Abdul Ghafir Ibn Muhammad.

[79] Imam Muslim

[80] Harmala Ibn Yahyá; One of the major students of Imam Shafi’i and one of the narrators of Imam Shafii’s statement, “ Bida (Innovation) is of two types, the praiseworthy one and the unpraiseworthy one. Narrated by Harmalah ibn Yahya. Also narrated by A.. Rabia Ibn Sulayman, another important student of Imam Shafi’i.

See: Sunna Notes Volume 2; p.129 Harmala said, ”I heard al-Sháfí`í say: Innovation is two types…”

http://www.livingislam.org/n/shfi_e.html A major contribution of al-Shafi`i…                      

& French: www.livingislam.org/n/sdb_f.html;

Also: What Is Bid`a (Innovation)? http://www.livingislam.org/n/bida_e.html)

[81] Abdullah Ibn Wahb: One of the great students of Imam Malik.

[82] Imam Muslim narrates this hadith from the student of Imam Shafi’i, who narrates it from the student of Imam Malik, showing the close biographical connection.

[83] This is Abul Husain Abd Al Ghafir Al Farisi, famous epitomizer of the history of Al Hakim Al Nisaburi. The بْنُ in the text is extra.

[84] Non-arab names can be pronounced in different ways. In transliteration Ta mabuta, we should always write the h as in Ibn Majah, but not for the feminine ta as in Fatima.

[85] Imam Muslim.

[86] Kitab has been translated here as writ instead of book because Kitab in Arabic can be even one line, i.e., any form of writing. Kitab has a double sense of obligation that has to be discharged at a precise time. It is a writing that has the weight of an edict and law, that Allah in His majesty is making binding upon himself in a way only He knows. I.e., My Mercy, for ever and always vanquishes My Anger and overtakes My Anger; the attributes of Mercy take precedence.

[87] Fáqa: supplant, to stand above. Lit.: being superior.

[88] i.e., In His presence.

[89] Abu Hafs Ibn Amilah: Great Musnid and Hafiz of hadith and master.

[90] Al Fhakr Ibn Bukhari: Great Musnid of Syria, from Salihiyyah. Hanbali. Gathered all the chains of hadith transmitters of his time. He has a compilation of his chains of transmission which is published.

[91] Persian name. Ibn Tabarzad: Great hadith scholar.

[92] Duma, suburb of Damascus. Most of the Hanbalis in Damascus still reside there.

[93] Khatib Al Baghdadi: Great hadith master; wrote on virtually every discipline of hadith.

[94] Abu Dawud Al Tirmidhi. There is a different Abu Dawud al Tayalisi who came earlier and who was one of the earliest systematic compilers of hadith. His Musnad is not among the canonical six books.

[95] Should be, `Wa qaala haddathana Ibn Kathir, haddathana Shu`ba`. Narrated by Imam Tirmidhi from Shu`ba with one intermediary but two different chains 1) Hafs Ibn Umar, 2) Ibn Kathir. This is not (1) Ibn Kathir of Damascus, who came much later after Imam Nawawi, the grant sheikh, student of Ibn Taymiyyah, author of Al BIdayah Wal Nihayah and of Tafseer, nor (2) is it Ibn Kathir, master of canonical readings, who came much earlier. This is (3) Ibn Kathir, the grand sheikh of Abu Dawud Al Sijistani.

[96] The student saying to his teacher, “Shall I say, you narrated to me (hadathani), even though I am reading to you?`, ‘Once you read it back to me, that means I narrated it to you.” Later scholars would say akhbarani (if so and so is reading back to the teacher), versus hadathaní ( when the teacher is reading and one hears it from their lips)

[97] Taught in the mosque of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), after being governor of Bahrain. Ibn Umar had given him permission to teach before Friday prayers to the people who would come from out of town and through the rest of the week.

[98] The one who’s grave is in this room, pointing to his (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) grave. In other hadith Abu Hurayra uses the words, my beloved, my intimate friend, to refer to the Prophet.

[99] شَقِيِّ is a state of the hereafter. i.e. Decreed as a wretch in the womb of their mother. The opposite is Saeed, the one who is in a state of bliss in the hereafter. i.e., decreed for bliss in the womb of his mother. This hadith is counterbalanced by other hadith which mean, Don’t cross your arms and sit on your back and do nothing. I.e., if actions that are conducive to paradise are being facilitated in this world, that means that human being is most probably one of the dwellers of paradise. This hadith is a simple index, if people have mercy, they are blissful in the hereafter. If there is no trace of mercy in a person’s behaviour, heart, speech or in their state, then they are from the wretches.

[100] Ibn Zuraiqh: this is one of Ibn Tulun’s greatest sheikhs.

[101] Sulaiman Ibn Ash’af is Abu Dawud Al Sijistani.

[102] Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shayba, the author of the Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba.

[103] Sufyan al Thawri. In some instances Sufyan refers to Sufyan Ibn Uyayna.

[104] In another version, ...the honour of our seniors.``

[105] Literally, not with the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) and those with him. Could also mean from the Islamic community until the end of time. Has also been interpreted to mean, from Ahlu Sunnah wal Jama’ah (Islamic orthodoxy). Most dramatic interpretation would be that the person is not a Muslim; ultimately a sign of lack of belief (iman), but not disbelief (kufr). i.e. belief is weak, if someone does not have compassion for the weak, defenseless and the vulnerable and no respect for the elders.

[106] Abu Hassan Al Qattan, senior student of Ibn Majah. Ibn Majah is received through him. Like al Firabri for Al Bukhari and Mohammad Ibn Ahmad (who is Abu Ali Al Lu’lui.) for Abu Dawud.

[107] Mohammad Ibn Yazid: Ibn Majah Al Qazwini. Qazwin (Iran), broadly Khorasan, around the Caspian sea in Central Asia (present day Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmanistan)

[108]  أَمَّةٌ مَرْحُومَةٌ (ummatun marhúmah) One of the attributes and names of the community of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), i.e., that has received the most mercy, it is a community characterised by mercy.

[109] Second key descriptive of the community, revealing to us our character. i.e., mercy has been lavished on you, whatever suffering and punishment you receive is in our own hands, i.e., here and now, and has nothing to do with the hereafter. i.e., Whatever punishment and suffering you incur is right here. and your part of the hereafter is only mercy and bliss.

[110] Part of the mercy is to know that the one to whom Allah has given mercy is treated in a special mercy. It is a gift that is not to be taken for granted. Even though Allah’s mercy encompasses everything, nevertheless each recipient has to seem himself as unique. I.e., this is your ransom, it could be you, but it is not you, so be grateful.

[111] Applies to hadith no 12 and 13 as well. This simple attribute of mercy is a clue of our state as members of the community of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) and of things to come in the hereafter. The whole matter rests on mercy.

[112] Muwafaq Ud Deen Ibn Qudama Al Maqdisi, author of Al Mughni in comparative fiqh. Hambali jurist and sufi. His grand sheikh was Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al Jilani.

[113] Ismail Ibn Yahya Al Shaybani: He was quite a weak narrator, and the two mentioned before him are also weak (da’if).

[114] i.e., have declared Islam, we are at peace with you and not at war.

[115] i.e., may they be ransomed for your benefit, I ask you with all my love and my state of being at your service.

[116] Balá is in response to a invert negative question, `Is not…`, otherwise the response would be na`m. If the wrong response is used, the answer would be the opposite.

[117] الْمُتَمَرِّدَ: The inveterate rebel.

[118] Hadith confirmed through other hadiths. The last sentence is recorded in other hadiths that are more authentic, for e.g., Hadith “Some people will be dragged to paradise with chains…?”. Also,” Everyone will go to paradise, except those who refuse”. (The sahabi would ask), `Who would refuse such a thing O Prophet?`, “The one who refuses to say La Ilaha Ila Allah even though the message has come to him.”

It is perhaps the exchange or drama behind the hadith has a vague aspect of embellishment, which is a characteristic of forgery. Allah knows best. There are other wordings in other narrations that do not include for e.g., the weeping of the Prophet or holding his head for a long time.

[119] Umm Abdullah Bint Sara`i`hi is عَائِشَةُ بِنْتُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ Aisha Bint Ibrahim Al Saraihiyah, the main teacher of Ibn Zuraiqh mentioned in hadith No 13.

[120] Imam Tirmidhi.

[121] Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al Aas.

[122] Layth Ibn Sylayman, has weakness in him.

[123] i.e., it is not from our sunnah, not from our deen.

[124] i.e., show utmost respect. Our greatest elder is the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) and to magnify the Prophet is the duty of every Muslim.

[125] The first version of the text is the stronger of the two (Hassan Saheeh), the second one is Hassan Gareeb because of Layth Ibn Sulayman.

[126] Ethics, morals, way of life.

[127] Mentioned in the previous chain. أَبُو الْفَتْحِ الْكَرُوخِيُّ ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ الْأَزْدِيُّ ، وَأَبُو نَصْرٍ التِّرْيَاقِيُّ

[128] Al Tirmidhi: Mohammad Ibn Isa Ibn Saura Abu Isa Al Tirmidhi.

[129] Bundar, nickname for Mohammad ibn Bas’shar, one of the suyukh of Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim. Imam Tirmidhi is of the same biographical layer, although he considers Imam Bukhari his sheikh.

[130] Yahya Ibn Saeed Al Qattan; the great scholar in who’s presence Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Yahya Ibn Ma’een did not dare sit unless he gave them permission. Highly respected and specialist of narrator criticism, hadith transmission and memorization.

[131] We see causality of showing or not showing mercy. Almost automatic causality promised and guaranteed by the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), those who show mercy, will be shown mercy; those who do not show mercy, will not be shown mercy. This has a huge consequence in the hereafter.

[132] It could be that this is from one of the narrators and Ibn Tulun is just quoting it.. The text that follows is not part of the hadith. If added to the hadith, it would be an example of Idraaj: interpolated/inserted statement mistakenly into Prophetic text. Could be that it is not from Ibn Tulun and from one of the narrators.

[133] This expression (Ibn Al Imam Al Shafi`i) is very misleading. He is known as Abul Fadl Mohammad ibn Al Imam Al Safadi (Palestnie) Al Dimasqi and he was Shafi (i.e., this is not Abu Abdillah Imam Al Shafi`i). d880H. He has a book on Aqidah, Tuhfat Al Ibad Bi Ma Yajibu Alayhim fil Aetiqad. He is mentioned in biographical notes of Imam Al Sakhawi, Al Law ul Damiah.

[134] Abu Al Hasan Al Maqdisí is Imam Al Bukhári.

[135]Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Asim: Author of Kitab Al Sunnah of Ibn Abi Asim and many other books of hadith. He also wrote an encyclopedia of Companions. Imam Asim points out in his book that the hadith is forged, yet he keeps it and narrates it.

[136] Abu Ayub: Sulaiman Ibn Salama Al Khabairi Al Himsi He is discarded narrator, accused of lying.

[137] Saeed Ibn Musa: Accused of forgery.

[138] But it contains nothing other than that what is established from different sources and different chains of transmissions independently from this chain. Which may explain why the author included it in this text and why hadith masters would not just discard a text.

[139] This is mentioned with a big caveat. Sheikh Girbil did not find another chain for it. Found in the Hilyatul Awliayh of Abu Nuaym with the same chain.

[140] Sheikh Gibril does not prefer the translation `Compassionate` as `Com` means `with`  and `passionate` means `suffering` (to bear, suffer a condition) and Allah does not bear with us.If the etymological meaning is present in the mind, we cannot use this translation, otherwise it is forgivable. In French, one can use Clement.

[141] i.e., that belongs to Me; not anthropomorphic, not the shade of a body projected. Also for example in Quran, He breathed into him (Adam) of His spirit (rúh min`na). and of Isa of being from Spirit of Allah. The of (min) has to be translated so that it does not indicate anything that suggests that a part (or detaches from) of His essence. It is a of (min) of ownership, creator-ship.

[142] This text is confirmed in Prophetic hadith elsewhere (i.e., show mercy and you will be shown mercy).

[143] This text is confirmed in Prophetic hadith elsewhere (i.e., just as you judge others, so you shall be judged).

[144] i.e., going up and coming down.

[145] i.e., they wear loin wraps.

[146] i.e., their limbs.

[147] i.e., little work from them is enough.

[148] i.e., this witnessing is sufficient from them.

[149] Abu Bakr Al Qati’i: Great Imam of Hadith, pious. Narrated a lot from Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, but not a direct student. Narrated Kitab Al Zuhd of Imam Ahmad which comes exclusively through the chains that the Imam narrates.

[150] Layth is a weak narrator. Layth Ibn Saad Ibn Abdul Rahman Al Fahimi Ibn Abu Al Harith (d176H).

[151] Deep, much forgiveness.

[152] Very prestigious Musnad.

[153] i.e., funnelling speech, speech which is not affecting them. As mentioned in the hadith about the Khawarij. The false scholars, false students of knowledge, those who are conveying the best of speech (Quran, Hadith) and are using the Prophetic heritage to turn around and accuse others. Such as if saying: ”Now that Allah has guided me, I'm going to close down the doors to Paradise behind me!”. They don't retain any of the light of the Prophetic speech.

[154] They do not want to show mercy, they do not want to forgive and they know it. They should not create division.

[155] This might be Abdul Karim Ibn Hamza Al Sam’ani from Khorasan.

[156] One of the great hadith scholars.

[157] Wahb Ibn Ráshid (fn 138) is the weak link in this particular chain. He is a very weak and discarded narrator. This makes the entire chain weak but does not necessarily mean that the hadith itself is weak if it comes though other chains. Imam Daraqutni considered that this hadith stopped at Malik Ibn Dinar and that he narrated it from a book he read it in. i.e., a Wijada: text found in a book.

[158] Can be read, Naq’ma or Niq’mah.

[159] This hadith is either a hadith qudsi or from one of the previously revealed heavenly, i.e., from Israelite sources, as mentioned by Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani and others.

[160] لتَّضَرُّع is similar in meaning to dua (supplication), but with the added dimension of fervour.

[161]  أَكْفِكُمْ is Majzoom (Ablative form), as it is in response to the condition. i.e., If you fulfill this condition (shart, protasis)  then this will happen (jawab shart, the apodosis)

[162] i.e., I [Allah] will take care of your kings for you.

[163] Ba’ja’di is probably a typo in the text. Abu Bark Ibn Muhibb is narrating from 4 or 5 sources.

[164] From here on the chain moves from Syria to Iraq.

[165] Similar wording to hadith No. 2, from where we know that it was Al Hassan.

[166] What is implied here is that he finds it strange, although it was an Arab practice to kiss kids. Sheikh Nur ud Din Ibn Itr noted that the reason why the urine of boys is considered pure for first two years after birth is because the Arabs like to carry around their boys. So the Shariah provides a dispensation in order to remove hardship because of the frequency of this situation.

[167] This is perhaps a way of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) saying to Aqra that perhaps your father never kissed you.

[168] The style of the Hadith is called Mujalasa or Musakala, i.e., when the same term is mentioned in close proximity and with an economy of words and rhyming quality (alliteration). Also known as cognates (words that have a common etymological origin) in stylistics.  Economy of words (lafdhan) but lavishly in their meanings (ma’nan).

Sheikh Gibril notes the “The arch rhetorician or The Schemer's Skimmer: a handbook of late Arabic badi' drawn from 'Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulsi's Nafahat al-azhar 'ala nasamat al-ashar by his teacher at Columbia University Pierre Cachia.

[169] Taqi ud Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah: His full name is Ahmad Ibn Abdul Haleem Abu Al Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah. He was from Salihiyyah and is buried at University of Damascus campus, which used to be the Sufi cemetery of Damascus.

[170] Al Maqdisi: One of the great memorizers [Huffaz] of hadith of Syria.

[171] i.e., the famous Tabii Muhammad  Ibn Munqadir.

[172] It is a very weak hadith but no one considered it forged. If a hadith is weak or very weak, it does not necessarily mean that it is forged. There is a distinction and each hadith is given its due right and place.

[173] ‘Sent down’ could relate to revelation from heaven or to the benefit from heaven.

[174] Lit., how with you all.

[175] We live in such a time and the one who has more patience in it will have more reward than a time in which there are less tribulations.

[176] i.e., that were astonished that such a time would come.

[177] Will be governing you, have authority over you.

[178] Hafidh [i.e. hadith master] Dia Ud Deen Al Maqdisi: The author of Hadith of Al Mukhtara, which is stronger than the Mustadrak of Al Hakim Al Naysaburi. These books do not do not distinguish between Sound (Sahih) and Good (Hassan) hadith. Often what is ranked as Sound in these books is of the Good rank. It is one of the reliable books. The Saheeh of Ibn Hibban is stronger than these two.  

[179] Abu Al Qasim Al Tabarani, hadith master, Imam of the world.

[180] Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Sa’igh: The muhaddith of Makkah.

[181] This is probably Muhammad Ibn Mu`awiyah Ibn Aa’yun Al Naysaburí who is a a discarded narrator, a very weak link in this chain.

[182] Ibn Jawzi considered it to be forged and included it in his Mau’du’aat Al Kubra. Imam Suyuti was not not convinced that it was forged and discusses it in Al La’ali Al Masnu’aa which he wrote in response to Ibn Jawzi’s book. Imam Suyuti provides a different chain for the hadith. One would have to analyse the two chains to determine if one hadith can be saved by the other and if not, analyse the texts and determine if parts of the text can be retained through independent confirmation from established texts; from the Quran and/or Sunnah.    

[183] i.e., Agree with you.

[184] A sadist.

[185] In modern Arabic, Shatir is someone skillful, resourceful. But it originally meant someone resourceful in evil ways. This is also an example of how words lose their concrete power with time and become abstract or positive.

[186] Although the words are written in the singular in Arabic, they are referring to archetypes, i,e., a class of people, hence translated in the plural.

[187] Halim (from Hlm) is a good word in Arabic to translate non-violent.

[188] i.e., they consider him a traitor, is suspected by them.

[189] Lit. made weak, i.e., of no consequence.

[190] مُشْرِفٌ: Sharaf originally means to be on a height; Shurufat are balconies.

[191] i.e., Authority.

[192] i.e. best morally, spiritually, religiously.

[193] Every line here seems to be describing our state of affairs.

[194]  الرَّامِينِيُّ is probably a typo.

[195] Ibn Bishran Al Muaddal: A famous scholar of hadith, some of his compilations have survived.

[196] Can be a small gathering, two or three people. Also because the presence of the angelic realm is uncountable.

[197] Lit., rub shoulders, to be close to/against a thing. Surround them.

[198]  السَّكِينَةُ peace from the heavens. It can also refer to a class of angels that are bringing the peace.

[199] Ham’dan, present day Iran, not Ha’ma’dani.

[200] Abu Tahir Al Silafi: Great hadith scholar. He was a globe trotter and would travel with his library for months. He had 1,000 or 2,000 sheikhs, may be more. He narrates from Qadi Iyad and is in the chain of his books, including for the Al Shifa Bi Tareef Al Huqooq Al Mustafa (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) (Translated into English by Aisha Bewley).

[201] The usual form of this hadith is, “Who is asking Me now...” (in the present continuous tense) which is known as the famous hadith of descent, i.e., Allah descends to the nearest heaven in the last third of the night and says those words. This hadith is well established from the books of the Saheeh and the Muwatta.  The particular wording cited in hadith #26 is not found in any of those works. It is found in the encyclopedia of Ibn Rajab, Jamia al Uloom wal Hikam, in which Ibn Rajab says that this particular wording is narrated by Imam Abu Bakr Al Mahamili, one of the early hadith masters.

Sheikh Haddad noted that he could not find the hadith in the Amali of Imam Mahamili, nor in his published book of Dua.

Imam Dhahabi said of Imam Mahamili: I looked at his method, his chains of transmission and his narrations and despaired of ever seeing any one of the Khalaf (later generations) catching up to the Salaf (the earlier generations) in hadith science and methodology.

[202] It is attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) but is it clear that it is a Hadith Qudsi.

[203] or who has supplicated Me (in the past).

[204] This is a rhetorical question, i.e., Allah answers everyone who supplicates to Him, in a way that He chooses, not in the way we expect. And the answer can be, delayed, in the grave, in the hereafter or at that time in the form of alleviation of a worse punishment, so its result may be the much lesser of the two evils because of the blessing of the answer. He will not answer a supplication for the sake of the tyrants or unrighteous.

[205] i.e., Allah always forgives those who ask sincerely.

[206] Abu Bakr al Qati’e, famous narrator of the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and other books attributed to the Imam Ahmad.

[207] Ali Ibn Ja’ed is mentioned in the Sunan, he is weak, but not that weak.

[208] i.e., does not slaughter it.

[209] i.e., even a sheep, sparing it out of mercy.

[210] Does this hadith provide Prophetic support for vegetarianism? The gist of the hadith is the emphasis on mercy, not the emphasis on sparing living animals that are usually used for consumption.

[211] Abu Abdillah Al Hafidh: This is Dia Ud Deen Al Maqdisi mentioned in hadith #24.

[212] Abu Nuaym (Al Hafidh) Al Asbahani, the author of Al Hilyatul Awliya. Note: Sheikh Nur Ud Deen Itr noted that there is no one named Na’eem in all of the hadith literature; it is always Nuaym.

[213] ح is a symbol for Tahweel, which means that the chain goes back to Al Asbahani.

[214] i.e., both Abdullah Ibn Jafar and Ismail Ibn Abdullah said.

[215] In Sheikh Gibril Haddad’s text, the editor notes that he could not find a source for the narration from Abu Hurayra.

[216] Can the Archangel Gibril circumvent the mercy of Allah if Allah wants that mercy to reach anyone? Is Gibril acting independently? No, Sayyidina Gibril is obeying the orders of Allah. It is a representation (tamthil) of actual divine punishment, conveyed through the action of Gibril, phrased in a way for humans to understand.  

[217] In the online Arabic version, Hadith No. 30 is numbered as Hadith No. 29. From this point onwards, the online numbering of hadiths is off by one.  

[218] there is a word missing here

[219] Typo, there is no narrator named Al Zawiyah.

[220] Zaynab Bint Kamal, one of the famous scholars of hadith from the Salihiyah district.

[221] There is a blank in the text at this point.

[222] Abadillah, the plural of Abdullah, i.e., Abdullah Ibn Masud , Abdullah Ibn Amr Al As, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Abbas. These four are the most famous and there were many other Sahaba named Abdullah.

[223] The most famous Original wording should be “The storyteller is just waiting for problems (Maqta)...” Because storytellers embellish their talk with that which is incorrect and they will be punished as a result.

[224] i.e., one trying to drive prices up in the market by hoarding.

[225] This is a prescription from Abdullah Ibn Amr Al As, a hadith which is a saying of the Sahaba. If there is a narration from a Sahaba regarding a matter of the unseen, it is assumed that it was heard from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), so its status is that of a Prophetic hadith. Some of the Sahaba are known for taking information from Israelite sources, and Abdullah Ibn Amr Al As is one of them. Therefore we do not attribute his narration to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), unless it can be confirmed through other hadith or the Quran.

[226] Lit., let him, that human being.

[227] In modern Arabic, it means only ‘to go’ and not ‘to go early’

[228] The face represents the body, which represents the heart and the souls, i.e., the entire self.

[229] Lowering of the voices.

[230] i.e., we make dua by our Islam, Iman and worship, we bless the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) and then we ask for our need.

[231] Supplication (Dua) can be in ones own words, as was the practice of many Companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ).

[232] Either from the Sahaba’s experience or, if a hadith, from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ).

[233] Sheikh Haddad notes from his text a third narrator; Abu Muhammad Al Afri (which could be Al Ifrini). This narrator is missing in the online text.

[234] Makh’ladi can be pronounced as Makh’lidi or Mu’kha’ladi.

[235] Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi have a similar narration, except that in those versions it is Abu Musa Al Ash’ari who is being visited.

[236] يُولِجَكَ  Walaja - Yuliju, to penetrate, enter. He is expressing surprise as if this is completely unexpected.

[237] Abu Musa Al Ash’ari is keen on linking his visit to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) himself.

[238] We are not privy to what when on of frictions between the blessed companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ). From our point of view we don’t make a distinction between Sayyidna Ali, Sayyidina Fatima, Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain. They are all our masters and command the same respect, love, loyalty and allegiance. So the context of the comment is something they understand and not us. It is as if it were more of a verbal joust, than a real difference that is being established.

So far as the blood of the Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) is concerned, it is coursing through the veins of his descendants and his lineage; his daughter and his grandchildren, and perhaps that is the hierarchy that Sayyidina Abu Musa Al Ashari is referring to in order to strengthen his position. May Allah be pleased with them all.

[239] Khada – Yakudu - to probe, to wade in.

[240] Imam Baghawi: Author of Tafseer and Sharh U Sunnah and Shamail.

[241] This is a Mursal (dispatched) chain as Hassan Al Basri is a Tabii (one generation after the companions) and he does not mention his link to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ). His mursal hadith are of the weak category as he sometimes narrates through weak narrators.

The strongest mursal chains are from those like Said Ibn Musayyib or Mujahid Ibn Jabr. Nevertheless Hassan Al Basri was one of the great Imams of fiqh of the Tabieen and one of the Awliya. The people of Basra considered him to the Sayyid (leader/foremost) of the Tabieen. They may not have been familiar with the hadith of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) in Sunnan Al Tirmidhi that the Sayyid of the Tabieen is Uways al Qarni (from Yemen). When there is a specific text, there is no more ijtihad (room for interpretation) or discussion about a matter. The people of Madina considered Said Ibn Musayyib as the Sayyid of Madina. Each region had a certain preference.

[242] Usr means to be in a position of difficulty but the default meaning here is financial difficulty. i.e., Someone who shows generosity towards a needy person.

[243] i.e., narrator is not sure.

[244] or gives respite or more time.

[245] As this is a Hanbali chain from Ibn Qudama to Zagouni, Abu Hassan Al Zagouni could be one of the three scholars whom Ibn Jawzi refutes in his book on the attributes of Allah.

[246] Mursal hadith.

[247] Ghanimah, spoils of war. i.e., speaks to his own Prophet.  

[248] It is wise advice. If one speaks let them speak not to their own loss or harm themselves, but to gain, whether worldly or spiritual from their Prophet or else be silent. In silence there is safety, as has come in another hadith explicitly, “Whoever stays silent, saves himself/herself”.

Notice the alliteration and rhyming quality of the phrase, Ghanima, Sanima. It is easy to remember and simple to understand, a technique used in other hadith as well.

[249] There is a blank here in the text. It could be Al Sharniyah.

[250] Abu Hajjaj Al Mizzi from Mazza in Damascus. He was a great Shafi memorizer of Hadith.

Sheikh Ul Islam Imam Taki Ud Deen Al Subki loved him very much and preferred him for his son, Imam Taj Ud Deen Subki, as a teacher over Imam Al Dhahabi.

[251] Ijbur: Could also mean mend me or reform me, what ever loss or disappointment I incur, make it up for me.

[252] It is good to invoke Ya Jabbar when one is in difficulty, loss, sad or if one is trying to amend one’s own or someone else’s situation as Jabbar does not only connote the strength, force and power the way Qa’har does, but it also has a sense of mending, making things better, consoling and granting solace.

[253] Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal found such strong evidence for the regular practice of this supplication (dua) by the Holy Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) that he made it mandatory (fard) for the validity of the prayer (salat) in the Hanbali Madhab. It is a recommended act (sunnah) in the prayer in the Shafi Madhab. It’s simplest form is ‘Rabbi‘gfirli’ (O my Lord forgive me).

It is good to know the obligatory aspects of prayer according to all the schools of jurispredence. It is an added benefit for the follower (ma’mum) of an Imam to know that the prayer is valid according to their Madhab, although it is sufficient for the follower’s prayer to be valid that the prayer is valid according to the Imam’s Madhab.  That is also why an Imam should not take rukhsah (dispensations) for his prayer from every Madhab, but rather take the Azeemah (more conservative, stronger, stricter) position from every madhab.

[254] Shorter chain, either someone missing or earlier chain was too long.

[255] Rashid Ibn Saad Al Miqraii: One of the righteous salaf, also known as called al Hubrani Al Himsi, Imam Bukhari narrates from him in Adab Al Mufrad. He also narrates in the Sunnan. His comment here is based upon his observation and knowledge of the sunnah.

[256] Abu Bakr Ibn Hazm is a Tabii who authored a biography of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ).

[257] Ibn Abi Dunya has many monographs of hadith on different topics.

[258] In a hadith the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said to, “Recite Yasin over your dying person (Iqra’u Yasin al maw’ta’kum)” has been interpreted by the scholars of hadith to mean recite Surah Yasin both on those who are dying; and this is the stronger meaning, and those who have passed away already, and that is the secondary meaning.

[259] i.e. the suffering is not easy, might be struggling and hard to see on their deathbed

[260] The paradigm being the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ), who said, “Truly I say that the agonies of death are a heavy burden”, and “Death brings with it an unbearable agony.” It is impermissible to say, that a person suffering on his deathbed has a lot of sins or is being punished. On the contrary, that person is being granted mercy. Allah may be using that suffering as a cleansing or raising of levels for the person. It is better to suffer in this world than in the next.

[261] اسْتَنْقَعَ  - To plunge in it.

[262] This hadith shows the Divine and Prophetic economy of seeking mercy; visiting someone or using charity (sadaqa) is medicinal. it is more selfishly practical than first appears as the gain is huge in reality.

[263] Hanbali chain to Imam Ahmad. It is a prestigious strong chain.

[264] What is implied is that the people came to Madina and expressed surprise when they saw people kissing their boys.

[265] It is couched as a question but the tenor of it is a rebuke. It is a rhetorical question expressing helpless at Allah’s decision but it is something they could help, which is why it is expressed as a rebuke. It is also as a motivation for them to seek to have more motivation for mercy in their behaviour so that mercy is cast into their hearts. In another wording, “What can I do if Allah removed from your heart mercy.”

[266] The editor to Sheikh Gibril Haddad’s text notes that he could not find particular wording in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad or in the Kitab Al Zuhd. But he narrates a very close wording, “I cannot help it if Allah removed from you mercy.” It is the same hadith except of a ‘la’ and ‘wa’ in Ibn Tulun version. And instead of a question it is an affirmation.

[267] i.e., at the time of change of the Qibla from Bait Al Maqdis to the Kabaa in Makkah. What is the status of the prayers from before them. Do they have to start from scratch and make up their prayers.

[268] Imam literally means belief, but in this verse it refers to prayers according to the consensus of the scholars of tafseer (exegesis).

[269] Q: Al Baqara (2:143) This shows the mercifulness of the verse and the whole direction of the Shariah towards prayer that is performed with sincerity and best intentions, even if it the worship is not according to Allah’s directive as the directive has changed and those people did not know. Those prayers are still accepted through Allah’s mercy.

[270] Meaning here follower of the Hanafi Madhab. If it were an earlier narrator in the chain, then it would refer to the people of Banu Hanifa.

[271] Mu’sa’dad Ibn Mu’sar’had had a book of hadith.

[272] Chain now branches off from Imam Bukhari.

[273] First chain finishes at Anas Ibn Malik and second at Abu Hurayra

[274] i.e., Don’t make your request weak. The offending clause is, ‘...if you wish’.

[275] Azeemah: Strength, strictness. This is connected to human psychology, implying that if you say, ‘…if you wish’, you are not caring or expressing sufficient concern. If you care and if you are begging the King, you should not restraint your request, but should have fervour, repetition, insistence and sincerity and truthfulness, summed up by the word Azeemah. As strongly as we ask, no one can force Allah, it is up to Him to give or not to give.

In Arabic, if one says ‘Inshallah’ in situations where someone else is concerned or for situations in the present (can be done right now), it expresses doubt and weakens the statement. If ‘Inshallah’ is used in swearing an oath, it annuls it.

[276] Could be Shihab Ud Deen.

[277] Adam: Ibn Abi Iyaz, one of the great narrators of hadith in Saheeh Bukhari and Muslim.

[278] Ibn Abi Daib: One of the great jurists of Madina Al Munawarah.

[279] None of you will be saved by their deeds. The subject is delayed for greater impact.

[280] Note the bluntness, but it is for the sake of learning. I.e., you (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) being the paradigm of the doer of good deeds and our model, does it not benefit even you.

[281] This is one of the great hadith of (Aqeedah) doctrine. Nothing is independent of Allah’s Mercy. Place no hope in one’s good deeds, rather in the mercy of Allah.

[282] i.e., Let all your moments be towards good deeds. It is a paradoxical hadith as it says that your deeds will not save you but do your best to do good deeds in quality and quality.

[283] Apply yourself economically and pace yourself. Qasd in Aravic from Maqsood, the objective, keep your eyes on the prize.

[284] Tablugu - Bulgatan. Need bulga, perseverance. Imam Shafi said one needs perseverance in order to succeed in studies.

[285] Abdul Rahman Ibn Mahdi.

[286] Here believer means Muslim in contradistinction with unbeliever.

[287] Or placed down.

[288] It is a hadith that emphasizes hope over punishment. The verses of punishment in Quran never come except there is a verse on mercy next to it and vice versa. That is the balance between the two which makes for perfect belief and correct doctrine, but if one of the two were to be given preference, it would be mercy, such as this hadith collection shows and the fact that every Surah except one begins with the repetitive mention of Allah the Most Merciful, the All Merciful.

[289] Al Mayduni: Sheikh of Zain Ud Deen Al Iraqi and grand sheikh of Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani.

[290] This chain proceeds through two female narrators, first one said, ‘I heard this’; the second one said, ‘I narrate this through Ijaza.’

[291] Al Bazzar: Complier of Musnad Al Bazzar.

[292] See Ibn Tulun’s comment at the end of the text and related footnote. ‘Sulayman Ibn Haram is unknown…’

[293] The narrator used to say he met Al Khidr many times.

[294] Or arm spans.

[295] Could be that the person himself was of that height and width.

[296] Farsakh

[297] Spring or creek.

[298] i.e., change that would decay his body.

[299] The angles.

[300] i.e., either preserved tablet or in revealed books that are unidentified.

[301] i.e., measured more.

[302] In another wording that Sheikh Gibril Haddad heard, one of the two eyes was taken and put in the balance against the favour of Allah and the favour of Allah weighted more.

[303] In this instance now, ‘with your mercy...’ comes first. The sequence of words reflect the  state of the character and the teaching for the reader.

[304] i.e., creating yourself.

[305] اللُّجَّةِ (Lujja): depth of the sea, gulf, abyss, chasm, depth. Hans Weir p858.

[306] Allah is saying that even your deeds are from my mercy. In reality the true nature of your deeds is that they are from the mercy of Allah. There is not a distinction between mercy and deeds.

[307] Notice the gentle and tender wording expressed here in the invitation to paradise, even after the rebuke and fear that servant went through at the time of his judgement.

[308] The final word, is all about the mercy of Allah.

[309] Uqayli and Abu Fath are two of the harsh critics of narrators.

[310] Mohammad Ibn Munqadir is a prestigious narrator; nevertheless the presence of a disclaimed narrator in the chain makes the entire chain disclaimed and yet it is mentioned by Hakim in Mustadrak, and Imam Mundiri mentioned it in Targheeb wal Tarheeb. Imam Mundiri was the Hafidh of Egypt. Sheikh Nur Ud Deen Itr placed Targheeb wal Tarheeb on same level as Riyadh Al Saliheen [of Imam Nawawi which is widely accepted] as authentic, i.e., if it was preserved by such an authority like Imam Mundiri, no matter how weak, that is sufficient proof for us. These are paradigmatic books of hadith and if scholars of such high caliber preserved them in their books, then we should use them. This might not convince some people but perhaps it might convince them that Ibn Qayyim, kept this hadith and defended it in one of his books.

This hadith cannot be defended from the viewpoint of chain of narrators, but it has to be defended from the viewpoint of the content. This is similar in approach to how Mulla Ali Qari does in his book on forgeries, where he would say, ’This is a forgery from the viewpoint of transmission, but from the viewpoint of the Quran and Sunnah, it is confirmed’, and this is likely how Ibn Qayyim reasoned. This is likely why Ibn Tulun preserved this hadith even though it is a weak narration. He placed it outside of the 40 hadith, in the conclusion, but nevertheless he gave it a prominent place by ending his book with it. And Allah knows best.