Is Belief In God Enough?
Is Belief In God Enough?
by Omar K Neusser


Chapters:
Introduction
From The Quran
The Elements of Faith
Perfection Of Faith, Ihsân
Belief In The Prophet
The 10 Commandments of the Hereafter
Final Remarks
Additional Quranic References
Quotes
Notes
Links
Cited Works

Subchapters:
Belief And Action
Belief And Disbelief
Belief In False Leaders
Belief Which Comes Too Late
Belief Will Be Tested
Belief; Signs Of
Believer and Muslim
Can human mind know God?
Deviations
Doubt
Doubt, Nature Of
Faith Here And Next
Faith; Fundamentals of
Freedom and happiness
Heart described
Heart, Which Is Sound
Intention
Knowledge solely based on reason
Knowledge; Personally obligatory
Knowledge: quest of self-knowledge
Most excellent action
nafs
Tradition
Works are realization of faith
Works without faith

It has been asked, if belief in God without adhering to a divine tradition, such as Islam, would be enough for man and woman in order to lead a good life. The following is in reply to this quite modern question.

Belief has to become faith, unshakable, ever confident -- until it has become knowledge (of God - may He be exalted in His Majesty ), so this affair is not a matter of lips, it has to grow & mature - it can do so on the path of a revealed religion, of which Islam still has its blessings (barakah) left, whereas other religions have lost theirs. The original, divine revelation is based on the truth, that why it functions; whereas invented, man-made systems have failed to deliver what they promised – God's knowledge is superior to our's.

We want to reach 'high morals,' but high morals involve knowledge of one's soul - of oneself, because without the divine wisdom provided by a revealed religion (Islam), it will not be possible for the human being - who is ever ready to delude himself - to find the way towards high morals in any given situation (except occasionally).

To believe in God and thanking him for putting us on this earth is a start, but not enough to lead us through, it has to be a continuous process of guidance and action which conforms to the guidance.

Religion is not forced upon us and it is not just an opinion or a point of view.
Islam is a whole way of living, a support for the believer, which helps him or her to live the life of this world with all its trappings and distractions toward the Divine presence.

1. Introduction

Belief or faith in God, Allah, as being One, Unique, without any partner, the supreme subtle guiding force in the life of man, is the principle. (On the difference between the concepts of belief and faith see below ) .
It means to trust sincerely and by all one's heart (mind) this omnipresent Divine Force of gentleness, compassion and mercy (Ar-RaHmân, Ar-RaHîm) , as He is the Truth (Al-Haqq), infinite and everlasting (Al-Qadîm) but also infinitely near to the believers (Al-Qarîb), with whom they seek repentence (taubah), turning to Him equally in times of difficulty and ease (Al-Mujîb) and who saves (At-Tawwâb) and guides them (Al-Hâdî).
This belief is in harmony with man's original nature (al-fitra), which once knew God, as it was still close to Him.
The minimum of belief is this basic belief, which we had as simple souls in primordial times, when we were asked by Allah: “Am I not your Lord?” to which we (as primordial souls) responded “Yes”, but which we forgot when coming to the life in this world. Quran 7-172

Just as the beautiful snake which deceived Adam (upon whom be peace) in the gardens of paradise, this worldly life of distractions and forgetfulness veils our soul from its origin norm, al-fitrah which are the heavenly spheres (the Divine Presence), so normally (arrow out), the (awakened) soul longs to be again close to God . And because creation is from Allah, the soul of man "must already intrinsically )* know Allah... But He is forgotten by man, hidden by the visible and solid. " FSH-26

Therefore Allah has sent 124.000 prophets and finally the last prophet, Master of the believers, Sayyidunâ Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and with him the Holy Quran, as a reminder of the eternal message, a confirmation of (the messages) which came before it, a salvation for mankind and a healing and mercy for the believers. To highlight faith or belief as the central point in the dîn (religion) of Islam a selection of quranic verses will be listed in chapter 2 .

In chapter 3 the essential elements of belief are presented, elements which are not of our choosing, they are given items of faith to lead us aright, including the Oneness of Allah (tauhîd) and the issue of intention (niyyah) and sincerity of action (ikhlâS).

And belief is not static but dynamic, that is it changes, chapter 4. While belief in Allah is the principle, it has to be attested (tasdîq) and realized, or made real and confirmed (tahdîq) so that it is not only emotionally held true or maintained by reason (which cannot understand God ), but that it engages the whole being of man, so that through spiritual warfare (jihad) he may purify his self (nafs ) in order to overcome the darkness within, by which the eye of the soul (intellectual intuition) (kashf) is opened to communicate with Him, Allah, may His Majesty be exalted!

This realization is achieved by following the doctor of hearts, healer of souls, guide towards the Unseen (al-ghaib), Muhammad – the Messenger of Allah chapter 5.

Then by the light and mercy of Allah the believer (al-mumin ) overcomes human fragmentation and becomes one whole being with a whole (holy) heart (al-qalb salîm), because Allah is One (Unique), the soul is one and life is one; (see: tawhîd).

In the tradition the heart is first of all the seat of intelligence and resulting action and not as in modernity, only the seat of feelings and affections, it implies the whole character.    YA-fn 4086

As Allah, may His Majesty be exalted, says in the Quran:

{ The day on which property and sons will not avail,
except him who comes to Allah with a sound heart. }
Quran, sura The Poets (26) verses 88/89

In chapter 6 there is a reminder of the 10 eschatological truths or Commandments of the Hereafter ( umûr-ul akhirah ) which are part of faith.

•   more on verse of the < sound heart >
•   Al-Ghazalî on the nature of < the heart >
•   Al-Ghazalî on < sincerity of action >


.

2. From The Quran

2.1 On Belief And Disbelief
Men may all seem alike and all are certainly from the same origin < norm, fitrah > they all believe in God at the beginning of their lives - often unknown to their grown-up souls - and almost all at the end (when it is too late); all human beings have been given free will and intellect, but without a divine reference many are lured into disbelief (kufr: being ungrateful for the gifts from 'above').
In the message of Islam, the difference between belief and unbelief is essential. This difference is described in the Quran as the difference between day and night, or between light and darkness:

{ He it is Who created you, but one of you is an disbeliever and another of you is a believer; and Allah sees what you do. }
Quran, sura Loss And Gain (64) verse 2

But just as darkness can change into light, so can also man's disbelief change by His mercy into belief in Allah and the Last Day:

{ Then your hearts (like stones) ... and of them there are some out of which flows water when they cleave asunder... And ALLAH is not unmindful of what you do. }
Quran, sura The Cow (2) verse 74

And belief - may Allah forbid - can be stifled and thus turn into disbelief, as what happened with the Jews, when Allah warned them for what they used to say:

{ And whoever denies faith, his work indeed is of no account, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers. }
Quran, sura al mâida (5) verse 5

Or similarily the hypocrites, who act in their evil ways, while pretending the best of intentions:

{ That is because they believe, then disbelieve, so a seal is set upon their hearts so that they do not understand. }
Quran, sura The Hypocrites (63) verse 3


2.2 Works without faith
2.2.1 The verse above: whoever denies faith, his work indeed is of no account, was explained by Abû `Abd-Allâh that it meant:
'someone who abandons a duty that he acknowledges ( as having been ordained by God ) ... to this category belongs one who intentionally quits prayer (Salât) without being ill or intoxicated.' T X-1,70)

It is therefore important to know that where there is no faith, works are of no account in the sight of Allah. Or, if an action is done for anything or anyone else than Allah, which is obviously the case of a disbeliever who outwardly does something good, it will be rejected by Allah, because the action was only superficially 'good', in essence it was for some other, mostly egoistical, self-aggrandising cause, which will not be accepted. Allah says in the Quran:

{ Whoever desires the life of this world and its ornaments, We will repay them their deeds herein, and therein they shall not be wronged.
Those are they for whom there is nothing but fire in the Hereafter, and all that they do here is worthless /shall go for nothing, and vain are all their acts. }
Quran, sura Hûd (11) verse 15/6

2.2.2 No superficial judgement of human actions
The above said goes of course against any superficial judgement of human actions, because what the 'eyes can see' is at the lowest level of reality, or what our 'feelings feel' for. Any action will be rejected by Allah, as long as it was intended for some other cause, such as for the demands of the ego (nafs ), instead of the Divine Presence , except for what He would accept in His Bounty, of which we know from the Quran and hadith.
It is related from Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah has said :

Allah - Mighty and Exalted is He! - says:
"I am in less need of partners than anyone / I do not stand in need of a partner). Therefore when a man does anything for My sake and for the sake of another as well / if anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me), then I shall abandon him with the one whom he associates [with Allah]."
Muslim book 39, number 7114

2.2.3 Doing Good For Other Than Allah
In the case of a believer doing something good for other than Allah, it is Allah's decision to accept it or not, but we cannot rely on His acceptance.
This is an issue of the Unity of Allah (tawhîd), which is related with the issue of intention and sincerity in action.
For those who do not accept the guidance of a divine messenger and who therefore never fulfil their normal function as human beings in the divine scheme - even their good actions are without substance and count for nothing in the scales of justice, for the Allah's Word applies to them: IDM-190

{ The parable of those who disbelieve in their Lord: their actions are like ashes on which the wind blows hard on a stormy day; they shall not have power over any thing out of what they have earned; this is the great error. }
Quran, sura Ibrahim (14) verse 18

Thus is the value of even of good deeds if man is without a spiritual centre, so much so that even seemingly selfless service is nothing if faith is lacking.

2.3 On Belief And Action
There are many verses in the Quran, which mention belief in Allah and righteous action for Allah's sake together.

{ And give glad tidings to those who believe and do good works, that for them are gardens beneath which flow streams. }
Quran, sura The Cow (2) verse 25

Clearly a kind of 'belief' with the mouth is not enough,
as the Messenger of Allah has said :
"O community of people who believed by their tongue, while belief has not entered their hearts: Do not backbite Muslims, and do not search for their faults, for if anyone searches for their faults, Allah will search for his fault, and if Allah searches for the fault of anyone, He disgraces him in his house."
Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Adab

•   more on <works of no account> above 2.2.2
•   more on <whoever denies faith> above 2.1


2.4 Faith profits in this life, more in the Next
2.4.1 Faith in Allah and the Last Day, while a gift from God, is also something we are urged to in the Revelation and by all of the Prophets (peace be upon them) and it is of course the principal reason for our liberation in this life and our salvation in the next:

{ If only there had been a community that believed and profited by its belief as did the folk of Yunus? When they believed, We removed from them the torment of disgrace in this world's life and We gave them provision till a time. }
Quran, sura Yunus (10) verse 98

2.4.2 Life of this world is 'less'
Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day know that the life of the world (dunya) is 'less attractive' than the Hereafter, which is the Real Life. The divine message is to remind us about this truth. Man is warned not to choose the 'less real' or non-real, the ephemeral, superficial or meaningless (life) for the Greater, the Real. <Sura Yunus, verses 7/8>

This said, we are reminded not to neglect our share in this world (28-77), which is a test and starting step for the next.

•   more on this life: <dunya> Islamic Concepts
•   more on giving preference to <the world> below


2.4.3 Freedom and happiness
Normally liberation from bondage and peace of mind, or 'happiness', are among the aims in human life, aims which are often - over the course of time - compromised for 'means on the way', such as wealth, power and fame. The character of these 'semi-gods' is not understood by many, they do not deliver on their promises of freedom and happiness, not to mention spiritual advancement.
In all traditions, including the Islamic, it is a fundamental truth that no-one can serve two masters at the same time, God and mammon; and in the message of Islam, great spiritual masters have reminded us that
"no-one attains true freedom as long as he remains under the influence of the slightest portion of his ego." (Abu Madyan, WAM-118 )

•   more on <nafs> below


2.5 Belief Will Be Tested
But, because life is not like some extended sunny afternoon for us and for our brothers and sisters of humanity, we will be tested and with it, this faith in God will also be tested, which hopefully then was not just a pretense.

{ Do you think that you will enter heaven while there has not come to you the like of that which came to those who passed away before you?... (to end of sura). }
Quran, sura the Cow (2) verse 214

•   more on <'Belief' of mouth> above


2.6 On The Signs Of Belief
There are signs of belief in man, but it is in essence a secret only known to God. Furthermore, belief can increase and decrease:

{ Those only are believers whose hearts become full of fear when Allah is mentioned, and when His communications are recited to them they increase them in faith, and in their Lord do they trust. }
Quran, sura Spoils Of War (8) verse 2

2.7 On Doubt
Doubting any element of the divine tradition will ultimately make the person fall into such serious error (faith in the events of the Hereafter is essential ) as it happened with the Jews of Madina, who saw the truth of the Messenger of Allah before them, but did not follow him:

{ They only ask leave of you who do not believe in Allah and the latter day and their hearts are in doubt, so in their doubt do they waver. }
Quran, sura Repentance (9) verse 45

•   more on <the nature of doubt> below


2.8 On Belief In False Leaders
Concerning the adoration and following of false leaders such as 'movie-stars', leaders of 'New Age'-sects or religious and political leaders of the life of this world (dunyâ) who 'inspire' many of the young, a phenomena which is today even more prevalent than in the old days, when already then Allah adressed the believers:

{ And those whom you call upon besides Him are not able to help you, nor can they help themselves. ... (to end of sura). }
Quran, sura The Elevated Places (7) verse 197

•   more on false leaders <New Kharijism >
•   more on <relying on own judgement >
•   another related <verse > below
•   more on false principles < Eleven (False) New Age Principles >

 

2.9 On Belief Which Comes Too Late
But belief has to be strengthened early in life, otherwise it may be too late, as with the peoples before:
But when they saw Our punishment, they said: We believe in Allah alone and we deny what we used to associate with Him. But their belief was not going to profit them when they had seen Our punishment; ... (to end of sura)
Quran, sura The Believer (40) verses 84/85

     
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3. The Elements of Faith

3.1 The elements of faith
The elements of faith (arkân al-îmân) are four:
•   Unification without limitation (tauhîd bilâ hadd)
•   remembrance without interruption (dhikr bilâ batt)
•   state without description (hâl bilâ na`t)
•   conscious existence without moment (wujûd bilâ waqt)
From one of the Shaykhs.

3.2 Items of belief
As can be seen from the Word of Allah, belief has many degrees and there are many aspects to it. The following are the three main items of belief in order to make faith sound:

1st Belief in God, Allah, the Supreme, the Almighty,
2nd Belief in the Divine Judgement on that promised day,
    and belief in life beyond this life of the world,
3rd To act righteously

Acting righteously is in regard to Allah, may His Majesty be exalted, who has rights upon us and it is in regard to other people, but is also righteous action for - or against - ourselves, which is - surprisingly as it may seem - no children's play at all, when one keeps in mind the nature of the human soul. A soul (nafs) which goes by its own rules so it seems and a body following its commands.

3.3 Fundamentals of faith
The fundamentals of faith ( asl al-îman) of what the human being is required (lazima) in this life (dunyâ) to believe in, if man wishes to attain happiness in both worlds, is the faith in:
- Allah,
- His Angels,
- His Holy Scriptures,
- His Prophets,
- the Day of Judgement,
- His universel decree (qadâihi),
- His particular decree (qadrihi) so much that you know that,
- that which hits you, could not have missed you, and
- that which missed you, could not have hit you. See: tauhîd

3.4 Perfect Faith (îman)
Faith (îman) is perfected when it comprises the following, in the words of the author of the Tadhkirat:

"I testify with my words (qaulan) and with the engagement (of my person / conviction (`aqdan) that belief is 'confirmation of faith' (tasdîq) and that it includes:
- speech (qaul)
- works (`amal)
- intention (niyyah)
- that which conforms with the Sunna
- (and the fact that) it increases or decreases, that it gains strength and that it weakens, (such that) the knowing person (`âlim) is stronger and the ignorant weaker, the former through his science, the latter through his ignorance." TD-259

•   more on <increase or decrease of faith> below 4.2


3.5 Prerequisites of action
3.5.1 Everything besides Allah will fade away
The Oneness of Allah (tauhîd): When one realizes that everything besides Allah is bound to vanquish because it is no cause in itself and has neither real power over anything and nor independent being, one comes to a point to reject everything except the First Cause, the Independent Being, God, Allah. This then is:

{ The path of those You have favoured, not of those who earn Your anger or of those who go astray. }
Quran, sura the Opening (1) verse7


3.5.2 The testimonial witnessing
Thus the testimonial witnessing (shahâdah) "is said in the belief that its reality, which is already dawning upon the person emotionally and by reason, will eventually by witnessed."FSH-26
As a criteria of the spiritual way, one could remember that whenever one does not see the mercy of Allah in a situation, one has fallen from the way of perfection. FSH-28

The double witnessing (shahâdah) of Allah as One, and of Muhammad as His Messenger is the key to the Garden (of Paradise) and it is the first step through the door of submission. A believer does not want to stop at the doorstep, without entering into the courtyard of the Divine Presence. As the famous scholar of Islam, An-Nawawi says:

"One's submission ( to God, Allah) is perfected through performing the observances of prayer, zakat, pilgrimage and the fast - which are the most patent and greatest of Islamic observances and neglecting them suggests that one has dissolved or vitiated (corrupted) the terms of one's compliance." RT-809

•   more on the perfection of <faith> below 4.


3.6 Intention, the spirit of action
3.6.1 Acting in spiritual awareness
These observances, as well as any 'good' action, have to be performed in spiritual awareness , awake not as a bare routine, which may save us, but not improve us on the way. Before one acts in one way or another, one normally has an intention to do it. So the kind of intention is very important, because in the best of cases,
" intention is the sincere consecration (ikhlâS ) of the action for God and it is the momentum of the heart (nuhûd al-qalb) towards God ... " TD-260
(an-niyyah: ikhlâS-al-`amali lillâhi wa huwa nuhûDu-l qalbi bi-`aqlihihi wa ma`rifatihi ila-llâhi)


3.6.2 The famous hadith on intention
And "intention is the spirit of the action (rûh ul-`amal)," as the Messenger of Allah has said in one of the most famous hadith:

"Actions are determined by [a person's] intention
and everybody will get [the reward of] what he intended."
(innama-l `amâlu bin-niyyâti).

•   See Imam Nawawi's Commentary on the above
hadith: < "Actions are according to intentions" >


3.6.3 The likeness of intention as a steering wheel
Why is the intention of an act much more important than the act itself?
'Because intention is like the steering wheel of the car, giving direction to people. If not this steering wheel is on the car, can you use that car? If you lost it that car is useless. It is dangerous! You can't use it. You can't reach anywhere. Therefore intention is the most important factor for our actions. And Allah Almighty is looking... more than to your actions, to what is your intention when you are doing something.' (Rest of quote: SNH )


3.6.4 Hadith on the most excellent action
Also the messenger of Allah was asked about the most excellent action, and he said that it is (TD-51/261):

The sincere intention and the realization of the plan through determination. (afDalu-l a`mâl):
an-niyyatu-S Sâdiqatu wa taHqîqu-l qaSd bi-l `azmi


3.6.5 Intention is hidden invocation
This is of course no issue for the hypocrite or unbeliever who does not intend to do something for Allah's sake alone and will sooner or later reap the bitter fruits of his denial and ignorance . Denial, because he denies that truth is principally of divine origin and ignorance, because he sees himself as independant from God and Heaven.
How different for the believer! His intention is nothing less than his
"hidden invocation of Allah" (adh-dhikr al-khafî), meaning that as and when he intends it - he then calls (by it) upon Allah and remembers Him.
It is also said that the difference between works and intention is that the former have a beginning and an end, which means they are final, whereas the latter endures (dâima)." TD-263

In this respect there is the tradition of `Atâ:
'Secret works account for double,
and the act is the activity of the members (arkân),
whereas intention is the activity of the hearts towards Allah.'
(al-`amâl as-sirra muDâ`afatun
wa-l-`amalu sa`iy-l arkân
wa-n-niyyatu sa`iy-l qulûb ila-llâhi
)


3.6.6 Works are the realization of faith
And "works are the realization of faith (tahqîq ul-îmân), and its outward manifestation (izhâr), they are subordinatited to their proper limits, whereas intention is the spirit of action (of works) (rûh ul-`amal) and has no evaluable limit." see 3.6.5
Further "while works have their reward in the Garden (al-jannah), intention (an-niyyah) has its reward in the stages of proximity (manâzil al-qurbah) [to the Divine Presence of God]." TD-264
And what could more excellent than this station of nearness?
These are but some of the effects of belief on the condition of souls.     

.

4. The Perfection Of Faith (ihsân)

4.1 There are many hadith on the nature of faith, two shall be mentioned here. They show the way of how belief can be perfected:

Anas narrated that Messenger of Allah said :

'Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness (delight) of faith:
1. The one to whom Allah and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else.
2. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah's sake.
3. Who hates to revert to disbelief as he hates to be thrown into the fire.'
 (Al-Bukhari, book 1. 15)

Another time as the Muslims sat together, the angle Jibrîl (peace be upon him) came in the form of a handsome man, and asked the Prophet about islam, imam and ihsan, to which he replied concerning ihsan that it is:

'To worship Allah as if you see Him,
and if you do not see Him*,
then you must know that He sees you**.'
(*and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion
**then you must consider that He is looking at you.)
This was narrated by Abu Huraira from the Messenger of Allah .
(Al-Bukhari, book 1. 47)


4.2 Faith is not static

The more one becomes aware that one is in the presence of the Mighty and Glorious, the more one will want to improve one's worship (`ibâdah).
This worship is safeguarded (against being nullified) by focusing on intention (niyyah) and sincerity of action (ikhlâS)

But as we are submitted to the changes of this life (dunyâ) and are continually tested, our faith also does not remain fixed or static. Quite the opposite, as Allah, may He be exalted, says in the Quran:

{ And when His communications are recited to them they increase them in faith... } (to end of sura)
Quran, sura Spoils Of War (8) verse 2 (two other verses: )

On the one hand faith will decrease because of ignorance and resulting wrong actions , because Allah only accepts what is just, lawful and what is done for His sake.

{ These are they from whom We accept the best of what they have done ... } (to end of Quran, sura)
Quran, sura The Sandhills (46) verse 16

On the other hand faith will increase through of obedience and love and because of the believer's (`abd) striving to gain Allah's pleasure.

Thus "the true nature (haqîqah) of faith is like the sun:
It illuminates the inner sights of the hearts (baSâir), if there are no veils. In that case faith does not increase or decrease..."
"When [however] the clouds of negligence (ghaflah) and passion (hawâ) pass in between [the sun of guidance and the human heart], the shining will diminish, faintness will enter the heart and weakness will enter the members respectively, those members which are devoid of (prescribed) acts (`amal) [of worship].

When the clouds of negligence and passion disappear, faith increases in its brilliance, the heart then stabilizes, the soul becomes peaceful and the members are pleased to accomplish good acts (li-l `ubûdiyya)]."TD-267

"The light [of faith] is in effect a gift from God which He gives to those of His grace (ahl minnatih), to His beloved ones, His Saints, His fortunate servants. (With the effects on the heart described above, it is obvious that) faith comes from God, and for this fact one has to witness his gratitude and praise His generosity."TD-276

"When belief has got rid of the defects of impurity [from what dulls its brightness] (wa-l îmân idhâ tajarrada min shawâibi-l akdâr), it becomes like the sun when it comes out from its eclipse. In this state there will be an increase [in faith] which Allah, may He be exalted, has mentioned in His Revelation. He adds light unto light, and by this added light his heart will increase in faith, it will become stable and firm. Those whom He has created, may He be exalted, for happiness (sa`âda)" pass as servants of God through some stages until they really deserve the names 'believer' and 'muslim'. TD-271


4.3 Gaining the name of believer and muslim
4.3.1 " Believer (mumin): because he has become stable and reassured against the hesitations and detours in the search for his Lord (rabb) and
muslim: because he surrendered himself to Him in everything He ordered him to do (sallama nafsahu ileihi jâmi`a mâ yamuruhu). This is at the same time an engagement, a covenant (`ahd) and an acceptance [approval] (qabûl).
From the day he has believed and accepted islam (aslama) and throughout his life the servant (`abd) is expected to be faithful to this engagement and this acceptance.
Servanthood (`ubudiyya) which is therefore presented to him has two modalities:
(a) That which his Lord decrees for him (yahkumuh) and
(b) that which his Lord orders him (yamuruh)."
(a): these are "the situations (ahwâl) which have been destined form him, such as poverty and richness; glory and abasement; health and sickness; everything agreeable and disagreeable;
and faithfulness (wafa`) in all of this requires that his heart and his soul accept it in confidence (itma`anna). "
(b): this is "to fulfill the duties and rules of religion (al farâid wa-l ahkâm) and to reject what is forbidden (al-mahârim);
and faithfulness in all of this requires that he accepts all that which He orders him and all that which He forbids him to do, that he obeys His orders and that he abstains from that which He has forbidden him.

If he is truthful in his faith (îmân) and in his islam (islâm), he will not be required [to undergo] the Balance (al-wazn) [of good and bad actions] and the Reckoning (al-Hisâb) [on the Day of Judgement].
The Balance and the Reckoning take only place for those servants, whose faithfulness has only been partial, who have thrown themselves unto forbidden things, who have had too little patience with the situations which Allah has decreed for them and which led them into trouble. This is why the Balance will take place to take account, so that the servant will see if his faithfulness will help him or if it is his abandoning of engagements (tark al-wafa` ).
If his faithfulness is to his advantage, he will be saved (najâ),
and if his abandoning of engagements weighs more, then the servant will depend on the Will of God (mashîa): if He wishes, He will forgive, and if He wishes, He will punish." (TD-274/5)


4.3.2 Three things indispensible for a believer
"Three things are indispensible for a believer in all conditions of life: he should keep the commandments of Allah; he should abstain from the harâm; and he should be pleased with the decree of Providence. Thus the least that is expected of a believer is that he should be with these three things. So it is meant that he should make up his mind for this and talk to himself about this and keep his organs engaged in this."

•   This quote is from Muslimarticles, external link, x L 20120703


4.4 Knowledge and faith inseparable
4.4.1 Further it has to be pointed out that "knowledge concerning God, Allah (al-`ilm bi-llaâh) and faith are inseparable, because (this) knowledge is the 'balance' (mîzân) of faith:

Faith is for knowledge a support (madad) and help (nasr), knowledge is for faith power (quwwa) and means of expression (lisân) " TD-268  

4.4.2 To be close to God - Allah (may His Majesty be exalted) means (also) to know Allah.   

•   more on the knowledge of God < Allah > below
•   more on the stages of < proximity > above


4.5 A note of caution
Please note that belief is not perfect if there is a lack of faith in the Messenger of Allah , see next chapter
or in the ten eschatological truths or commandments of the Hereafter ( umûr-ul akhirah )


5. Belief In The Prophet And His Finality

Without the Prophets (peace be upon them) there would be no messages and laws from the Divine and without the last Messenger of Allah there would be no universal message of Islam. The witnessing of the One Divinity has therefore to be complemented by the witnessing of His Beloved, Prophet Muhammad being the Messenger of Allah.
{ Only those are believers
who believe in Allah and His Prophet ... } (to end of sura).
Quran, sura The Light (24) verse 62

This in turn means that belief is rejected
without belief in the Prophet . Al-Ghazalî says:

“Allah Most High sent Muhammad , the Qurayshite unlettered prophet, to deliver his inspired message (bi-risâlatihi) to the entire world, Arabs and non-Arabs, jinn and mankind, superceding and abrogating all previous religious systems with the Prophet's Sacred Law (shari`at)... Allah has favoured him above all other prophets and made him the highest of mankind, rejecting anyone's attesting to the divine oneness by saying 'There is no god but Allah' unless they also attest to the Prophet by saying 'Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah'. He has obliged men and jinn to believe everything (*) the Prophet has informed us concerning this world and the next, and does not accept anyone's faith unless they believe in what he has told us will happen after death.”
RT-822

•   (*) see also <Probativeness Of Sunna> below

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah that the Prophet said:

'I have been given five things which were not given
to any one else before me:

* Allah made me victorious by awe, [by His frightening my enemies] for a distance of one month's journey.
* The earth has been made for me a place for praying (masjidan) and a clean thing [by performing tayammum], so whereever the prayer[time] reaches a man from my ummah [my follower] he can pray.
* The booty has been made lawful (halal) for me, yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me.
* I have been given the [right of] intercession [on the Day of Resurrection].
* Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation alone, only but I have been sent to all mankind.
(Al-Bukhari, book 7 h:331)


Allah, Glorious and Almighty, asks the Prophet to remind his nation that it is essential for those who claim to love God, to love His Prophet, as Allah says in His revelation, the Quran:

"Say to them: If you love God, follow (and love and honor) me, and God will love you"
(Sura 3:31).

•   see Love Of < The Prophet > And Following His Example


6. The 10 Commandments of the Hereafter

"There are ten eschatological truths or Commandments of the Life Beyond ( umûr-u l akhirah ) of which the total or partial negation amounts to <innovation> [ in faith ] and they are proven by the Quran and the Prophetic tradition (sunnah) ... " TD-280  

"These eschatological truths are the following:

1 - the Punishment of the Grave ( adhâbu-l qabr): (the trial of the grave which people will face) Al-Bukhari book 23, no. 455;
2 - the Assembling [of people] (al-jam`ah) on the Day of Judgement
3 - the Balance (al-mîzân)
4 - the Reckoning (al-Hisâb)
5 - the Pond (al-hauD)
6 - the Intercession [of the Prophet ]
7 - the Bridge (as-sirât) and what belongs to it
8 - the Entering into the Fire of Hell (an-nâr), from where could come out who said that there is no other god but Allah
9 - the Entering into the Garden(s) of Paradise (al-jannah)
10 - the Vision of Allah (an-naZar ila-llâhi), Glorious is He and Exalted, and the listening (samâ`) to His Words (kalâmihi) without intermediate (tarjumân)."

"Belief in all of this consists in confirming his faith (tasdîq), to avoid those who reject and to abstain from discussing (mujâdilah) with them."

"The most excellent believers in faith are those who are best in realizing the truth of the Quran and Sunnah, and who best identify themselves with it."

"There is not any action which - if left out - is disbelief (kufr) and this is prayer (salâh).
Whoever leaves off from it in a spirit of negation (jahûdan) [rejection, denial, not wanting to know of it] is an unbeliever and legally eligible for capital punishment."

"And all praise belongs to Allah - al-Hamdu li-LLâhi." TD-280/1
.

7. Final Remarks

7.1 Nature Of Doubt
Although doubts per se may be part of being human, they belong to the earlier stages of the way, before faith is assisted and secured by knowledge. Doubting the Absolute Principle and speculating in human choices for example are satanic influences (waswas) which appear to be part of the deadening condition of modern man, who is satisfied with the workings of his deluded mind, seeing himself self-sufficient.  

{ Nay! man is most surely rebellious, (transgressing all bounds),
Because he sees himself self-sufficient, (independent). }
Quran, sura The Clot (96) verse 6/7

Explanation 1: When man has attained wealth, honour and rank and whatever else he desired to attain in the world, he becomes rebellious instead of being grateful and transgresses the bounderies of servitude to Allah. Maududi

Explanation 2: One of the reasons for our arrogance is that we imagine ourselves to be self-sufficient. Istaghnâ: he appears independent, thinks he is independent, rich, self-sufficient. He is not connected, he is not in tawhîd, he is in separation. JAH-242 more tafsir:

However, what does not seem to be much known, is that man is called for to actively believe in the Divine message and act according to it. In these Last Days which we live in, there is no escape from the catastrophy and annihilation of the human race, if we do not throw down those false gods erected by modernity, including the small ones: our demanding egos prone to evil! If we believe in the Divine message, and live according to the traditional way as shown by the prophets, especially the last Prophet the coming of the Day of Judgement can be postponed and will be light for us!

Allah orders man:

{ Therefore believe in Allah and His Apostle and the Light which We have revealed; and Allah is Aware of what you do. }
Quran, sura Loss And Gain (64) verse 8


7.2 Knowledge based on reason
Knowledge solely based on reason will never attain certitude of belief (yaqîn), but will erect structures of unbelief and modern idols, in the souls of man and in society.

Only in the living tradition of Islam, which is preserved by Allah and His Prophet and His community of believers, there can be a base for certainty and bliss.
Concerning the Divine Attributes of God, it is said that:
"Faith affirms the Attributes by the science of certitude (`ilm al-yaqîn) to witness its conviction ( tasdîqan ), while knowledge of their true nature (haqîqa) is a mystery (ghayb) which is impossible to reach by reason.
TD-279
An-Nawawi says:
"As for the basic obligation of Islam, and what relates to the tenets of faith, it is adequate for one to believe in everything brought by the Messenger of Allah and to credit it with absolute conviction free of any doubt." RT-9


7.3 Deviations
"Deviant and aberrant opinions (do not) necessarily entail the unbelief of the people who hold them, or being beyond the pale of Islam." Muhammad Sa`id Buti in RT-953 But they entail uncalculable consequences if left uncorrected.


7.4 Personally obligatory knowledge
Personally obligatory knowledge (which includes personally obligatory action) is (among other items) the knowledge of the heart , meaning familiarity with its illnesses such as envy, pride and the like. Al-Ghazalî says that knowledge of their definitions, causes, remedy and treatment is personally obligatory. RT-12

Equally Al-Suyuti who said that:
"The science of the heart (al-tasawwuf), and to know the heart's diseases such as jealousy, arrogance and pride and to leave them is an obligation on every Muslim."

Purification of heart involves remembrance of Allah and to detach oneself from 'property and sons' of the world (dunyâ) because one cannot cleanse the heart except by cleansing from it everything except Allah's face. Thus the Prophet of Allah described the pure heart in a prophetic hadith:

My earth and my heaven contain me not,
but the heart of My faithful servant contains Me.

This science and striving is essential for the believer and it is too great as to be described in a few words. And Allah knows best.

•   more on the <heart> below 7.5


7.5 Quranic verse on the sound heart

{ The day on which property and sons will not avail,
except him who comes to Allah with a sound heart. }
illa man ata- LLâha bi-qalbin salîmin
Quran, sura The Poets (26) verses 88/89

tafsîr (explanation of verse) 'sound heart':
It is a heart which is free from the desease of hypocrisy, doubt and disbelief.
A sound heart is where the affectations (*) of the mind do not arise and which is safe from all the distractions of all that is not God. CDS-68
For the heart, which is the seat of the knowledge of God there is a health and a healing, see the verse above. (MD-55) The opposite is a heart with a disease:
{ In their hearts was a disease, ... } (to end of sura).
Quran, sura The Cow (2) verse 10


•   back to < introduction >
•   more on < purification of heart > above 7.3
•   more on < the heart described > below 10.5 by Al-Ghazalî
•   more on < a sealed heart > above on the hypocrites


8. Additional Quranic References

The Convenant of The Lord with His countless souls before time, concerning the Trust with which they were honoured before their coming to this world:

{ And when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants, and made them bear witness against their own souls: Am I not your Lord? They said: Yes! we bear witness. Lest you should say on the day of resurrection: Surely we were heedless of this. }
Quran, sura al-`arâf (7) verse 172

People of this life, who did not prepare themselves for the Hereafter:

{ Surely those who do not hope in Our meeting and are pleased with this world's life and feel secure in it, and those who are heedless of Our verses.
As for those, their abode is the fire because of (with) what they earned. }
Quran, sura Yunus (10) verse 7/8

Verses on increase in faith:

{ He it is Who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they might have more of faith added to their faith... } (to end of sura)
Quran, sura Victory (48) verse 4

{ and that believers may increase in faith... } (to end of sura)
Quran, sura The Cloaked One (74) verse 31

Other verses on dis-belief:

{ And whoever swerves from belief to an attitude of unbelief, even if he later returns as it fittes him proper, will find himself in trouble, to say the least:

Surely (as for) those who believe then disbelieve, again believe and again disbelieve, then increase in disbelief, Allah will not forgive them nor guide them in the (right) path. }
Quran, sura an-Nisâ (4) verse 137

Equally bad or worse is when someone professes his belief in order to hide his enmity:
{ And a party of the People of the Book say, 'Declare your belief outwardly in that which has been revealed unto the believers, in the early part of the day, and disbelieve in the latter part of thereof; perchance they may return.' }
Quran, sura âl `Imrân (3) verse 72


Questioning in excess, showing disrespect towards their prophet (AS):
{ Would you question the Messenger sent to you as Moses was questioned before this ? And whoever takes disbelief in exchange for belief has undoubtedly gone astray from the right path. }
Quran, sura The Cow (2) verse 108


False leaders
O you who believe! Do not take your fathers and your brothers for guardians (friends) if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith; and whoever of you takes them for a guardian (friend), these are the unjust.
Quran, sura Repentance (9) verse 23


Concerning the bitter fruits of man's ignorance:
{ Has there not come to you the story of those who disbelieved before, then tasted the evil result of their conduct, and they had a painful punishment?
That is because there came to them their prophets with clear arguments, but they said: Shall mortals guide us? So they disbelieved and turned back, and Allah does not stand in need (of anything), and Allah is Self-sufficient, Praised. }
Quran, sura Loss And Gain (64) verse5/6


•   back to < text > above
•   back to < chapter 2 > above
•   see also < 'people of this wordly life' > below 9.3


.

9. Quotes

9.1 You cannot serve two masters
Shaykh Nazim al-Haqqani continued to explain:

"A person may do something either for his ego's pleasure or for his Lord's pleasure. There is not a third factor. No! You may act either for Your Lord's pleasure - trying to make your Lord pleased with you; or you are trying to make your ego pleased with you.
There is no third factor, no. Either right or left.
You are always in a crossway. You must choose one of two ways: one taking you to the Pleasure of Allah Almighty; and the second taking you to your ego's pleasure, as well as to shaytan's pleasure. Through every action therefore, intention is an obligation for everyone seeking to do something."

•   more on <intentions for Allah> external link


9.2 Explanation of verse (cont. from above 7.1)

{ Nay! man is most surely rebellious, transgresses all bounds),
Because he sees himself self-sufficient, independent). }
Quran, sura The Clot (96) verse 6/7

The quest of self-knowledge
"The quest of self-knowledge begins by looking at what is closest to us, (which is) the lower nature of man [his nafs], his fear, lusts, anger, despair and lack of trust. At all times the arrogant, lower nature of man is such that it causes him to transgress, yatghâ."
(And the closest to us) "is what lies on the path of ease (yusr). To take the easy way is to follow one's nafs."

"The true purpose of our being here is to become fully awake, to know why we are here. Once we have awakened to that, then everything else will follow. We have however forgotten the priorities and do not want to address such a difficult issue."

•   see story of Mullah < Nasruddin's ring >

(That arrogance is of a man) "not questioning his state, his position, his purpose, not questioning his nothingness or the fact that at best he is only hanging on air. At his healthiest, man is like a balloon blowing himself in and out, not questioning himself, oblivious to the fact that this is his capital and everything else is but a passing moment. Not questioning - this is his tughyân (transgression), inner tughyân. "

"At any moment he may drop dead. Will he leave contentedly? Will he leave the railway-station with an open heart for his journey? " JAH-241/2

•   see excellent article on < nafs > below - external link


9.3 Giving Preference To The World

"The Product of giving preference to the world is transgression and rebellion. Whoever prefers this world, i.e. he accords it priority over the Akhirah, will necessarily indulge in violation of the Shariah. Since his objective and goal are his material life, he will set aside and violate the Law of Allah Ta'ala when it prevents him from his quest. The sign of preference for the world is to ignore the command of the Shariah when it clashes with one's worldly persuits, motives and goals. The logical result is rebellion."
(unknown author)


9.4 Belief - same or different?

"Belief is, at base, the same for everyone, but the superiority of some over others in it is due to their fear and awareness of Allah, their opposition to their desires, and their choosing what is more pleasing to Allah."
Statement 64 of <Tahawi's "Doctrine"> (al-`Aqida)


9.5 Knowledge of Allah

Concerning knowledge of Allah, which is a too vast a field to be dealt with here, a quote may be in place to suggest the direction:

"You are, oh slave, ignorant of yourself and your origin.
How can you ask for the knowledge of Allah?
You must ask for knowlede of yourself and realise what is your origin. "
Shaykh al-`Alawi KO29


.

10. Notes:

10.1.1
In the above text the words 'belief' and 'faith' and equally 'works' and 'action(s)' were used as synonyms, the former is îmân the latter is `amal in Arabic. Because our everyday language treats these concepts as synonyms, no distinction has yet been made in this text either. However, as alluded to below, in 10.1.3, to come to grips with one's belief one has to understand the change of meaning this word has undergone over time.

10.1.2
"Belief" or iman in traditional Islam signifies the confirmation (tasdiq) of and compliance (idh`an) with Prophet's message and with all that he brought from Allah, whether it is mentioned in the Qur'an or not.
See: [ The Probativeness of the Sunna Hujjiyya al-Sunna ]

10.1.3
"Belief" is not what it once meant, nowadays it has come to mean "the holding of certain ideas".

In Latin the corresponding word is "I believe" but in the meaning of 'I acknowledge the fact ..." or "I see that..." or if compared with the Hindu sradda: "I set my heart ..., combining as in classical Latin the ideas of 'heart' and 'action', in the sense of commiting oneself. 188 and giving credit.

Errors which have, indeed, a tenacious hold upon all of us born into the 20th century. 187u

The trap of subjectivism 187-1

In medieval scholastic philosophy Intellect was the faculty of direct vision of the transcendant, a vision that is then translated by the mental faculties into concepts than can be expressed in human language. HGE in AS187

10.1.4
The Divine message is of course equally for both men and women and there are many Quranic verses alluding to this fact, so when speaking of 'man', it always implies 'woman', he implies she, if not specifically adressed to men, as seen fom the context.
So there is no need, as quite a few modernists are trying, to break their heads about if the Divine is a "He" or better? a "She", because, of course, God is above such denominations or limitations.
Whenever Allah applies the pronoun "He" for "Himself" it has nothing to do with gender, but is a transcendant denomination, or a name of God.

10.1.5
(Parentheses) are for the original Arabic expressions, or for comments.
[Brackets] are used for explanations, which were not part of the quoted text.


10.2
The sincere consecration (ikhlâS) of the action to God is to do the action for the sake of God alone, or in the words of Al-Ghazalî:
al-ikhlâS: an takûna a`mâluka kullahâ li-llâhi
He also said:
Sincerity (ikhlâS) is "the purification of your action from all tinge (), ... so that in it only exists the striving to come closer to Allah and no other motive."
( Al-Ghazalî in his Ihya IE-I-57 )

10.3  The true nature of man

Ignorance about the true nature of man means primarily, to ignore that he has three levels of being: the spirit, the soul and the body;
and it is further an ignorance about the existence God and - or the nature of Reality.
This abject state of being entails disobedience towards the Divine Law, meaning that unrecommended and forbidden acts will follow, all undermining faith and intellect, which is a dangerous road indeed, as it leads to the worst outcome.


10.4  Can the human mind or reason know God?


10.4.1 Reason cannot grasp God

Reason cannot understand God, because "He has no intelligeable representation and the intelligences don't show the way towards him".
laisa lahu mathala ma`qûl
wa lâ dallat `aleihi-l `uqûl
instead:
kâna wa lâ makân
wa huwa `ala mâ `aleihi kân

"He was when there was no place, and He is now such as He has always been."
TD-163/4


10.4.2
The question has been asked, if the human mind, when unaided by divine revelation from the prophets, is able to know if one's actions are good or bad in the sight of God, the Almighty.
There is some difference on this subject among the scholars of islam,
but the position of the Ash`aris [main Muslim group = the sunnis] is that
"the mind is unable to know the rule of Allah about the acts of those morally responsible except by means of His messengers and inspired books.
For minds are in obvious disagreement about acts. Some minds find certain acts good, others find them bad. Moreover, one person can be of two minds about one and the same action. Caprice often wins out over the intellect, and considering something good or bad comes to be based on mere whim. So it cannot be said that an act which the mind deems good is therefore good in the eyes of Allah, its performance called for and its doer rewarded by Allah; or that whatever the mind feels to be bad is thus bad in the eyes of Allah, its nonperformance called for and its doer punished by Allah."

RT-2


10.4.3  Al-Ghazalî concerning reason or 'intellect'

"The way that the medicins of acts of worship, their limits and amounts being specified and determined by the prophets, cannot be comprehended by the apparatus of intellectuals' "intelligence." Rather, it is necessary to follow the example of the prophets, to whom these properties are perceived through the prophetic light, not the apparatus of the mind."
...
"Let us imagine a man who reaches the physical and mental maturity without ever experiencing a disease, but who then falls ill. He has a concerned father with skill in medicine, whose claims to medical knowledge he has heard as long as he can remember, and his father now compounds some medicine and says, 'This is appropriate for your disease and will cure it.' How much will the intellect demand, even if the medicine is bitter and tastes unpleasant? Will he take it, or will he call the doctor a liar, saying, 'I do not see the suitability of this medicine for effective cure, since I've never tried it.' You would doubtless consider him a fool for this. And just so do the knowledgeable who possess spiritual insight your reservations."

RT-844/5
   


10.5  The heart is extensively described by many Islamic scholars and saints, so for example Al-Ghazalî where he writes (in his Alchemy of Happiness):

"By 'heart' I do not mean the piece of flesh situated in the left of our bodies," but it is the inner dimension, sometimes called soul, sometimes spirit. The heart is your essence, everything else is following from it. It cannot be seen by the outer eye, but only through inner perception.
"In truth it does not belong to the visible world, but to the invisible... It is the knowledge of this entity and its attributes which is the key to the knowledge of God.
It is an indivisible essence belonging to the world of decrees, and that it is not from everlasting, but created.
An exact philosophical knowledge of (it) is not a necessary preliminary to walking in the path of religion, but comes rather as the result of self-discipline and perseverance in that path," as it has to be freed from enmity towards people, from desire of the nafs and from being occupied by sensual phenomena."

As it is said in the Quran:

{ Those who strive in Our way, verily We will guide them to the right paths. }

•   one has know how to < purify the heart > above 7.4
•   the hypocrites' < heart is sealed > below


10.6  A Note On Tradition

Tradition has here the normal, ethymological meaning, i.e. being truths and principles of divine order revealed or unveiled to mankind. This definition does not however suppose that divine traditions are equal as seen from man's perspective. For him here and now it matters very much which tradition he should follow in order to reach the Divine Presence, because due to their abrogation by Islam, the various traditions have lost most of their blessing and sanctifying function.The valid channel for the spiritual liberation of man is Islam, now and until the end of time.   

Concerning tradition see:
•   < On The Islamic Tradition And The Unchanging Religion >
•   < On The Common Eternal Principles And That Islam reigns >

See also ff pages:
•   Quotes on Islamic Tradition at: < Texts By R. Guénon >
•   < The Nature Of Sacred Knowledge > SH Nasr, Q&A
•   Tradition: < Metaphysical Foundations >
•   Signposts: < On Metaphysics >

10.7  Words explained

'Conscious existence' - wujûd: wujûd is a thrill of emotion in contemplation of Allah, which cannot be investigated in or described by the pen.
NB: Wujûd is a grace bestowed by the Beloved (Allah) on the lover.
KAM-413
intrinsic: important, basic
tinge: A tinge of something, especially a colour or a feeling, is a small amount of it. For example: There was a tinge of envy in her voice.
CoC
affectations: pretenses, not genuine or natural behaviour, but which is intended to impress other people. CoC

10.8  Cited works

CoC: Collins Cobuild; Dictionary
CDS: Contemplative Disciplines in Sufism,Valiuddin Mir
FSH: Comment on Four Suras; Sh F. Haeri
IDM: Islam And The Destiny of Man, Hassan Gai Eaton
JAH: Juz `Amma; Sh. Fadhlalla Haeri; Zahra Publ; 1985
KO: Knowledge of God; Shaykh al-'Alawi
KAM: The Kashf Al-Mahjúb; The Oldest Persian Treatise On Sufism, Al-Hujwírí; transl. R A Nicholson, 1976 London
MD: Saviour From Error; munqidh min-ad dalâl, Al-Ghazalî
RT: Reliance Of The Traveller, arrow out online
TD: tadhkirat al-khawâs wa-l `aqîdat ahl ikhtisâs; falsely attributed to Ibn `Arabi; La Profession de foi d'Ibn Arabî, Roger Deladrière, Univ. de Lille 1975
YA: Yusuf Ali's translation of the Holy Quran


.

11. Links:

11.1  External Links

11.1.1 The Alchemy of Happiness, x L 20120703     to introduction

11.1.2 <Make your Intentions for Allah's Sake>
A person may do something either for his ego's pleasure or for his Lord's pleasure. There is not a third factor.

11.1.3 < Alchemy of the Heart > , x L 20120703: Shaykh Muhammad Maulud:
- Three Types of People
- The Heart and the Brain
- Wrong Actions Sicken the Heart

11.1.4 <The Sincere Faith> Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi (Khutbah of Eidul Fitr 1421), x L 20120703
We must lead humanity by upholding the principles of truth, justice and compassion. We are the followers of Rahmatullilalamin (the Mercy to the Worlds), we must be kind and good to each other and we must show care and concern for the whole humanity.



11.2  Notes with links on this site

For the science of the soul (nafs), of which the main stages are the commanding soul, the repenting soul and the soul at rest, see the excellent article:

•   more on: the soul - < nafs >

'Normally' is here understood as what is according to the norm.
In the traditional definition of norm and normal:

"Normality, defined in relation to a norm, is a model in terms of which we try to shape our characters and our behaviour.
And this involves living up to our human potential."

•   This quote is from: < Norm > And Normality







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