Bismillahi Al-Rahmani Al-Rahim
I was wondering, for reference when speaking to others, what the
arkan of salat al-Jumu'ah are in the hanbali madhab, its
establishment, its location, the number of its atendees and their
qualities (sane, locals, etc.,).
May Allah reward those who seek knowledge in His path.
wa `alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
Here is the text from the Zad al-mustaqni` lessons.
[start of text]
The Friday Prayer (jumu`a)
(Who is and is not required to attend)
The Friday prayer is required of every:
It is not required of:
Attending the Friday prayer is suffices for someone who is not required to attend it, though it does not convened [tan`aqad] by them, nor is it valid for one of them to lead it. But anyone who it is not longer obligatory for him because of an excuse: (b: if he attends it) it is obligatory for him and convenes because of him (b: and it is permissible for him to lead it).
It is not valid for someone who must attend the Friday prayer to pray Zuhr before the imam. But it is valid from someone if their attendance is not obligatory, though it is better to wait until the imam prays.
(b: It is recommended that someone who has left the Friday prayer without an excuse to spend a complete dinar or a half-dinar in charity.)
It is not permissible for someone who must attend the Friday to travel on a Friday after the sun's zenith (b: until praying it, if he does not fear losing his traveling companions. Traveling before the sun's zenith is offensive if he will do perform it on the way).
Section (Conditions for the Validity of Friday Prayer)
The (b: four) conditions for the Friday prayer's validity-and they do not include permission from the imam-are:
Purity (b: ritual purity and being free of filth, even if making the sermon in a mosque…) is not a condition for the two sermons (b: and likewise, covering the `awrah).
Neither is it a condition that the same person who delivers them lead the prayer.
(b: Unlawful words invalidate the sermon, even if only a few.
When able, it is not sufficient to do it except in Arabic. (m: But this refers to the actual required elements of the sermon. It is permissible to say them in Arabic, then translate them, and then come with the non-essential parts in another language).)
The sermon's sunan include:
(b: It is permissible to read from a paper.)
(b: If renegades [khawarij] take over a land and they have a Friday prayer, it is permissible to prayer behind them according to Imam Ahmad. Ibn Abu Musa said: he prays with them and then repeats it as Zuhr. (m: If this is Imam Ahmad's opinion regarding the Khararij of those days, then how should it be when it comes to Salafis and Madhhabis?))
Section (Description of the Prayer)
The Friday prayer is two rak`a.
It is a sunna (b: after Al-Fatihah) to audibly recite Al-Juma` (62) in the first rak`a and Al-Munafiqun (63) in the second.
It is unlawful to for there to be more than Jumu`a (b: just like `Eid) in a single area unless there is need (b: such as the area's vastness, regions being far apart, mosques being far apart or constricted, fearing dissension and disunity [fitna]. In that case it is lawful for there to have more than one, but only to the degree necessary).
If they do it (b: meaning: pray in two or more locations without need) then the one the imam (of the Muslims. May one appear before the coming of the Mahdi!) participated in or gave consent for (b: even if it is later) is valid (b: whether or not we say the imam's permission is a condition).
If they are equal in having permission or lacking it, the second is invalid.
If they took place simultaneously or it is unknown which one preceded, they are both invalid.
(b: If `Eid and Friday occur on the same day, the Friday prayer is no longer obligatory for anyone who attended the prayer with the Imam-but not the Imam.
(Supererogatory prayers after it)
The smallest number of sunna (b: rak`a associated with the prayer) after the Friday prayer is two, and the most is six. (b: He should pray them where he is-contrary to other sunna prayers associated with obligatory prayers, which should be done in his house-and it is a sunna to separate between the obligatory prayers and sunna prayers by talking or moving.
There is no sunna associated with the Friday prayer before it.)
(Sunnas for Friday)
It is a sunna:
It is unlawful to have someone else get up (b: even his own slave or his grown son) and sit in their spot except for (b: someone young) or a companion that he had go first to sit in a spot and reserve it for him (b: However: if someone sits in the place of the imam, where people walk, or facing the people praying and the spot is tight-he is made to get up).
It is unlawful to remove a spread-out prayer-rug as long as the prayer has not commenced (b: and then he removes it…and does not pray on it).
Whoever gets up from his place for some reason [li `aridhin lahaqahu] (m: such as putting a copy of the Qur'an in its place or going to the bathroom) and then comes back shortly, he has more right to the place (m: than anyone else).
Whoever enters while the imam is delivering the sermon does not sit until praying two, short rak`a (b: even if it is a time when prayer is forbidden). (b: And if he sits he gets up and prays them if only a short time has passed.
Praying two rak`a to greet the mosque is a sunna for anyone who enters the mosque, except during the times when it is forbidden to pray…unless the iqamah has been made.)
(Talking during the sermon)
It is impermissible to talk while the imam is delivering the sermon, except addressing the imam or the imam addresses him.
Talking is permissible before and after the sermon (b: and if the imam is silent between the two sermons or begins the supplication.
It is permissible to make prayers upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) if he hears the imam mention him, and it is sunna to do it silently… Silencing someone by gesturing is not [like talking].
It is offensive to fidget or drink during the sermon if one can hear it; otherwise it is permissible.).
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wa al-salamu `alaykum