Bismillahi Al-Rahmani Al-Rahim

Jumu`ah Prayer



I was wondering, for reference when speaking to others, what the

arkan of salat al-Jumu'ah are in the hanbali madhab, its

establishment, its location, the number of its atendees and their

qualities (sane, locals, etc.,).

May Allah reward those who seek knowledge in His path.


wa `alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu

Here is the text from the Zad al-mustaqni` lessons.

[start of text]

The Friday Prayer (jumu`a)

(Who is and is not required to attend)

The Friday prayer is required of every:

  1. free

  2. legally responsible

  3. male

  4. Muslim

  5. residing amongst buildings that have the same name, even if they are separated

  6. where the distance between him and the mosque (b: if he is outside of the settled area) is not more than one farsakh (m: approximately 3.125 miles or 5km. And if he is inside of a city where the distance between him and the mosque is greater than 5km or the like, he still must attend)

It is not required of:

  1. a traveler on a journey in which he can shorten his prayers (b: so if he is disobedient by making his journey, or the journey is more than one farsakh but less than the distance needed to shorten (m: 16 farsakh), or stayed in the city doing something preventing shortening prayers (m: like staying more than four days) while not intending to settle: Friday prayer is obligatory)

  2. a slave

  3. a woman

Attending the Friday prayer is suffices for someone who is not required to attend it, though it does not convened [tan`aqad] by them, nor is it valid for one of them to lead it. But anyone who it is not longer obligatory for him because of an excuse: (b: if he attends it) it is obligatory for him and convenes because of him (b: and it is permissible for him to lead it).

It is not valid for someone who must attend the Friday prayer to pray Zuhr before the imam. But it is valid from someone if their attendance is not obligatory, though it is better to wait until the imam prays.

(b: It is recommended that someone who has left the Friday prayer without an excuse to spend a complete dinar or a half-dinar in charity.)

It is not permissible for someone who must attend the Friday to travel on a Friday after the sun's zenith (b: until praying it, if he does not fear losing his traveling companions. Traveling before the sun's zenith is offensive if he will do perform it on the way).

Section (Conditions for the Validity of Friday Prayer)

The (b: four) conditions for the Friday prayer's validity-and they do not include permission from the imam-are:

  1. the time. It begins from the beginning of the time of `Eid (b: because of the statement of `Abd Allah bin Saydan: "I participated in the Friday prayer with Abi Bakr (Allah be well pleased with him) and his sermon and prayer were before half of the day [had passed]. I then participated in it with `Omar (Allah be well pleased with him) and his sermon and prayer were until I could say 'The day has set'. I did not see anyone who criticized it or objected to it" Al-Daraqutni related it, as did Ahmad and he used it as evidence and said: "The same has been related from Ibn Mas`ud, Jabir, Sa`id, and Mu`awiyah (Allah be well pleased with them) that they prayed before the zenith and it was not objected to" (m: this hadith is considered weak)), and it ends at the end of the time for Zuhr (b: without any disagreement. And doing it after the zenith is better). If the time ends before the opening Takbir they must pray Zuhr; otherwise they pray the Friday prayer.

  2. the attendance of 40 people whose attendance is obligatory

  3. that it be in a settled village. It is valid to have it near the buildings in a vacant area. If the number depletes before finishing the prayer they restart it as Zuhr. Whoever prays one rak`a with the imam finishes it as the Friday prayer, and anyone who attains less than one rak`a completes it as Zuhr if he intended Zuhr (b: …otherwise he completes it as a supererogatory prayer).

  4. the two sermons preceding the prayer. The conditions for their validity include include:

    1. praising Allah (b: with the form: "Al-hamdu lillah"),

    2. praying upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and his family and give them peace)

    3. reciting a (b: complete) verse

    4. counseling to have fear of Allah Mighty and Majestic (b: these integrals are required for each of the two sermons)

    5. attendance of the stipulated number

    6. (b: the time

    7. that the khatib is fit to lead the prayer

    8. that they be audible so that considered number (m: forty) hear it, provided there is nothing to prevent them

    9. intention

    10. that the necessary number (m: of people listening) are residents

    11. the immediate consecutiveness between them and the prayer)

Purity (b: ritual purity and being free of filth, even if making the sermon in a mosque…) is not a condition for the two sermons (b: and likewise, covering the `awrah).

Neither is it a condition that the same person who delivers them lead the prayer.

(b: Unlawful words invalidate the sermon, even if only a few.

When able, it is not sufficient to do it except in Arabic. (m: But this refers to the actual required elements of the sermon. It is permissible to say them in Arabic, then translate them, and then come with the non-essential parts in another language).)

The sermon's sunan include:

  1. delivering the sermon on a minbar or elevated spot (b: when there is no minbar… On the right of the right of the prayer niche [mihrab] when facing the qiblah; and when giving the sermon standing on the ground, to the left)

  2. greeting the believers with salams when he faces them them

  3. then sitting until the end of the adhan

  4. sitting between the two sermons

  5. standing while delivering the sermon; leaning upon a sword, bow, or staff

  6. making eye contact (b: and they turn to him when he gives the sermon)

  7. keeping the sermon brief (b: with the second being shorter. He raises his voice as much as possible)

  8. supplicating for the Muslims (b: and it is permissible to supplicate for someone specific)

(b: It is permissible to read from a paper.)

(b: If renegades [khawarij] take over a land and they have a Friday prayer, it is permissible to prayer behind them according to Imam Ahmad. Ibn Abu Musa said: he prays with them and then repeats it as Zuhr. (m: If this is Imam Ahmad's opinion regarding the Khararij of those days, then how should it be when it comes to Salafis and Madhhabis?))

Section (Description of the Prayer)

The Friday prayer is two rak`a.

It is a sunna (b: after Al-Fatihah) to audibly recite Al-Juma` (62) in the first rak`a and Al-Munafiqun (63) in the second.

(Multiple congregations)

It is unlawful to for there to be more than Jumu`a (b: just like `Eid) in a single area unless there is need (b: such as the area's vastness, regions being far apart, mosques being far apart or constricted, fearing dissension and disunity [fitna]. In that case it is lawful for there to have more than one, but only to the degree necessary).

If they do it (b: meaning: pray in two or more locations without need) then the one the imam (of the Muslims. May one appear before the coming of the Mahdi!) participated in or gave consent for (b: even if it is later) is valid (b: whether or not we say the imam's permission is a condition).

If they are equal in having permission or lacking it, the second is invalid.

If they took place simultaneously or it is unknown which one preceded, they are both invalid.

(b: If `Eid and Friday occur on the same day, the Friday prayer is no longer obligatory for anyone who attended the prayer with the Imam-but not the Imam.

(Supererogatory prayers after it)

The smallest number of sunna (b: rak`a associated with the prayer) after the Friday prayer is two, and the most is six. (b: He should pray them where he is-contrary to other sunna prayers associated with obligatory prayers, which should be done in his house-and it is a sunna to separate between the obligatory prayers and sunna prayers by talking or moving.

There is no sunna associated with the Friday prayer before it.)

(Sunnas for Friday)

It is a sunna:

  1. to make the purificatory bath for the Friday prayer, during its day (b: and it is better to do so after having intercourse and upon leaving to the prayer) and this was previous mentioned (b: but this is questionable)

  2. to clean

  3. to apply fragrance

  4. to wear the best clothes (b: and white is best, and to wear a turban and a cloak [`imamah and rida])

  5. to walk to it early

  6. to be close to the imam (b: facing the qiblah…and being busy with prayer, invocations, and recitation)

  7. to read surat Al-Kahf during its day

  8. to make frequent supplication

  9. to make frequent prayers upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and his family and give them peace)

  10. to not step over people, except for the imam or someone reaching a gap (b: that cannot be reached except by stepping over them).

It is unlawful to have someone else get up (b: even his own slave or his grown son) and sit in their spot except for (b: someone young) or a companion that he had go first to sit in a spot and reserve it for him (b: However: if someone sits in the place of the imam, where people walk, or facing the people praying and the spot is tight-he is made to get up).

It is unlawful to remove a spread-out prayer-rug as long as the prayer has not commenced (b: and then he removes it…and does not pray on it).

Whoever gets up from his place for some reason [li `aridhin lahaqahu] (m: such as putting a copy of the Qur'an in its place or going to the bathroom) and then comes back shortly, he has more right to the place (m: than anyone else).

Whoever enters while the imam is delivering the sermon does not sit until praying two, short rak`a (b: even if it is a time when prayer is forbidden). (b: And if he sits he gets up and prays them if only a short time has passed.

Praying two rak`a to greet the mosque is a sunna for anyone who enters the mosque, except during the times when it is forbidden to pray…unless the iqamah has been made.)

(Talking during the sermon)

It is impermissible to talk while the imam is delivering the sermon, except addressing the imam or the imam addresses him.

Talking is permissible before and after the sermon (b: and if the imam is silent between the two sermons or begins the supplication.

It is permissible to make prayers upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) if he hears the imam mention him, and it is sunna to do it silently… Silencing someone by gesturing is not [like talking].

It is offensive to fidget or drink during the sermon if one can hear it; otherwise it is permissible.).

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wa al-salamu `alaykum