Bismillahi Al-Rahmani Al-Rahim
Questions For Lesson 00
From the end of the first section (A0, The Three Types of Water):
>>If pure clothing is indiscernible from filthy or unlawful clothing
(b: and he knows the number), then he prays in each outfit a number of
prayers equal to the filthy clothes and adds one prayer.<<
Is this referring to fardh salat? What would make the clothing filthy?
(Does this mean he hasn't had the opportunity to wash any filth from it
before the prayer comes in?)
By "unlawful," does it refer to perhaps clothes that were obtained in a
less than lawful manner (ie theft or something)? Do you think you could
illustrate this point by giving a specific example? (IE, Ahmed has 3
garments, 2 are filthy, etc)
Jazakh Allah Khair
wa `alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu
The matn really is not very clear about the issue. The problem here is
just another version of a simple story problem from math class:
So here is a retranslation of the text with more commentary:
- Ahmad has 6 white socks and 6 blue socks. If he begins pulling out
socks at random, how many will he have to pull out to guarantee that he
has a pair of blue socks? (Answer: 8 socks. First he must exhaust the
supply of white socks and then add two to make sure he has taken from the
Question by question:
- If pure garments are indiscernible from (b: a known number of) filthy
garments, or (b: lawful garments indiscernible) from (b: a known number
of) unlawful clothing (m: such as it being stolen, or silken worn by a
man), then one prayer is prayed in a different garment until the number of prayers equals the filthy
(b: or unlawful) garments (b: with each prayer intended to be the
obligatory prayer) in addition to one more prayer (so that the obligatory
prayer be performed with certainty).
(b: If the number of filthy or unlawful garments is not known, it is
required that one prayer be performed in each garment so that it is
certain that the prayer was performed in a pure garment--even if the
garments are numerous. The prayer is not valid if done in a garment
confused (m: with a pure garment) when the it is certain that a pure
garment is present. The ruling is the same for small areas (m: where it
is indiscernible which parts are clean an which filthy); in a large
area the prayer is performed in any part without checking.)
-  The Arabic literally means "each", but
this meaning is clear from Kashshaf Al-Qina` , which is much
clearer on this issue.
Is this referring to fardh salat?
What it understood here is that before even praying, it is
known that the pure and filthy garments are mixed together. Since this is
known ahead of time, it seems most likely that the person is going to be
limited to praying only the obligatory prayers.
What would make the clothing filthy? (Does this
mean he hasn't had the opportunity to wash any filth from it before the
prayer comes in?)
A conceivable example for this topic would be a dog licking
the clothing. A previous article talked about filth (search for "filth" in
the group's archive) and it will be revisited in a later lesson.
By "unlawful," does it refer to perhaps clothes
that were obtained in a less than lawful manner (ie theft or
Here "unlawful" includes things that are unlawful to possess,
like stolen goods, as well as things that are lawful to possess but
unlawful for the possessor to use, such as silk garments for men.
Do you think you could illustrate this point by
giving a specific example? (IE, Ahmed has 3 garments, 2 are filthy,
Picture it this way: you have five garments, all of which are
completely identical except that you are certain that a dog licked two of
them but you aren't quite sure which ones or where. You don't have any dirt
handy, and even if you did: the sun will be setting quite soon. So what you
do is make wudu, put on a garment and pray, then change it for another
garment and pray, and then change it for another garment that you haven't
prayed in and pray. Since the number of filthy garments is known to be two,
by praying in three different garments you are certain to have performed
the prayer in a pure garment.
Now, you have the same garments but instead of knowing which ones were
licked, you just know that some dog has licked some of them but not all of
them. So what you do is pray one prayer in each garment so that you know
that at least one of the prayers was in a pure garment.
[Additional sources: Al-Mughni, Al-`Uddah, Dalil Al-Talib, Kashshaf
Al-Qina`, Nail Al-Ma'arib, and Manar Al-Sabil]
Shukran for the question, and thank you very much for not including the
entire original message in your reply.
Wa al-salamu `alaykum