Prayer is required from every legally responsible Muslim, except during menstruation or postpartum bleeding.
Prayers are made up by anyone losing consciousness from sleep, being knocked out, intoxication, or the like.
Prayer is not valid from someone who is:
(b) a non-Muslim. If a non-Muslim prays (b: regardless of the type, whether in Dar al-Islam or Dar al-Harb, whether in a congregation or alone, and whether or not in a mosque) then he is ruled to be a Muslim (b: and if he were to die immediately after the prayer his inheritance goes to his Muslim relatives, he is washed, prayed over, and buried between our graves. If he wishes to remain in disbelief and says “I only intended to mock,” it is not accepted from him. It is the same if he makes the call to prayer, even if outside of its time.)
Children are ordered to perform it when seven, and beaten for not doing it at ten. The prayer is repeated if a child reaches adolescence while praying or after a praying while still in its time.
It is unlawful to delay the prayer beyond its (b: preferred) time (b: or after its time) unless intending to join prayers, or being occupied with one of the conditions for prayer which will be achieved shortly.
(m: The penalty for denying that prayer is required of Muslims is quite severe in the Hanbali mathab. It is essential to remember that the shari`a as a whole is intended to be practiced, not just bits and pieces of it. If these rulings seem harsh, one must remember that it used to be that almost every male prayed in the mosque, and not seeing someone praying in the most for a day or so was cause to be worried about the person’s righteousness. This is one of those rulings where my Sheikh says we must follow the Shafi`is. And al-hamdu lillah.)
Anyone denying that prayer is required is declared a disbeliever (b: if he is someone who is not ignorant of it, even if he performs it, since he declares Allah, His Messenger (b: Allah bless him and his family and give him peace), and consensus to be liars.
If he claims ignorance and is new to Islam, he is informed of it being required and is not judged to be a disbeliever since he is excused. If he persists in considering it (m: the obligatory nature of prayer) to be a lie and likewise omitting prayer out of neglect (b: or laziness—but not denying it), the imam or his substitute invites him (b: to perform it). If he persists [in his considering it a lie and neglecting it] and the second prayer time becomes too constricted for it, he is not killed until his repentance is sought three times for the two (b: meaning: concerning someone who denies it being required and someone who leaves it out of scorn…)