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The “Hand” of Allāh swt 
by GF Haddad - Rajab 1423

"I heard Mālik [ibn Anas] say: 'Whoever recites (the Hand of Allāh) (3:73, 5:64, 48:10, 57:29) and indicates his hand, or recites (the Eye of Allāh) (cf. 20:39, 11:37, 23:27, 52:48, 54:14) and indicates that organ of his: let it be cut off to discipline him concerning the Sacredness and Transcendence beyond what he has compared Him to, and above his own comparison to Him. Both his life and the limb he compared to Allāh are cut off." Ibn Wahb.1

Ibn ʿAsākir wrote:

The Muʿtazila said: He has a "hand" (yad) but His "hand" is his power (qudra) and favor (niʿma), while His "face" (wajh) is His existence. The H.ashwiyya said: His hand is a limb (jārih.a), and His face has a form (s.ūra).2 Al-Ashʿarī took the middle road and said: His hand is an Attribute and His face is an Attribute, just like His hearing and His sight.3

The Salaf and later scholars interpreted the Hand of Allāh (swt) in various ways depending, among other factors whether the singular or the plural is used.

Concerning the verse { We have built the heaven with (Our) hands } (51:47), al-T.abarī narrated in his Tafsīr that Ibn ʿAbbās said: "It means: with strength." He reports an identical position from Mujāhid, Qatāda, Mans.ūr, Ibn Zayd, and Sufyān al-Thawrī. This is also Imām al-Ashʿarīs explanation a reported by Ibn Fūrāk in the latters recension of Ashʿarīs school.4

However, al-Ashʿarī in al-Ibāna and his student Ibn Khafīf pointed out the difference between the plural hands (aydin) on the one hand, and the singular and dual on the other.5 The tawīl of the Salaf with regard to the plural hands is based on the lexical possibility of the meaning of al-yad among the Arabs as signifiying strength (al-quwwa). Thus the same verse (51:47) is cited in al-Zabīdīs massive Arabic dictionary as an illustration that "hands" means "strength."6 This is also the interpretation retained by al-Nawawī in his commentary on Muslims S.ah.īh. and other later Ashʿarīs. It is confirmed by the verse: (Make mention of our bondmen, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, men of parts [literally "of two hands"] and vision) (38:45) meaning men possessing strength.

It also means ownership (al-mulk) as He said: (Lo! the bounty is in the hand of Allāh) (3:73).

According to some scholars it also means favor (al-niʿma), as it is said: "So-and-so has a hand over so-and-so," to mean that he owes him a favor.

It also means a kind of link, as Allāh said: (Or he agrees to forego it in whose hand is the marriage tie) (2:237).

Other meanings are generosity, kindness, and mercy. Dr. al-Būt.ī wrote: "The hand of Allāh (swt) is His strength in His saying: (The hand of Allāh is over their hand) (48:10) and His generosity in His saying: (Nay, both His hands are spread wide, and He bestows as He wills) (5:64)."7

Imām al-Bayhaqī said in his masterpiece al-Asmā wal-S.ifāt:

Some of the keenest scholars have said that the Right (al-yamīn) signifies the Hand (al-yad), and the Palm (al-kaff) likewise, in the sense that the hand for Allāh is an Attribute, not a limb.8 Thus every passage that mentions it in the Book and the authentic Sunna carries a meaning in connection with the object of mention such as folding up, taking, seizing, spreading, sweeping, accepting, giving, and other acts connecting the personal Attributes to what those attributes entail, without touch nor contact. There is never in all this any likeness between Allāh and creation whatsoever. Others have said that the handful (al-qabd.a) [in the verse (The whole earth is His handful on the Day of Resurrection) (39:67)] may be by means of a limb - exalted is Allāh beyond that! - while others said that it may mean dominion (al-mulk) and power (al-qudra).. . . as in His saying: (From among those whom your right hands possess) (30:28) which signifies property. It was also said that by the verse (and the heavens are rolled in His right hand) (39:67) is meant that the heavens are bound to disappear according to his oath. That is, He swore an oath to abolish them. . . .

About the Prophet's ﷺ h.adīth: "No one spends something good in charity - and Allāh accepts nothing but good - except the Merciful takes it with His right hand (yamīnih), if only a date; it increases in the palm of the Merciful (kaff al-Rah.mān) until it exceeds the size of a mountain, just as one of you makes his parcel of land productive."9 His saying "The Mercifuls palm" (kaff) means His dominion and sovereignty according to the keenest scholars.10

Al-Māzarī said: "This h.adīth and its likes are only expressions that follow their usage so that they would understand his [the Prophets] meaning, so it metaphorically refers (kannā) to the acceptance of alms as the right hand and to its reward as its increase." ʿIyād. said something similar, both as reported by Ibn H.ajar.11

Al-Bayhaqī continues:

About the h.adīth whereby a Jew ( or: one of the rabbis ) said to the Prophet ﷺ: "Allāh places the heavens on a finger, the earths on a finger, the trees on a finger, the undersoil on a finger, and all creatures on a finger." Hearing this, the Prophet ﷺ smiled until his molar teeth showed. A version in the two S.ah.īh.s specifies: "he smiled in confirmation of the rabbis words." Then he said: {and they esteem not Allāh as He has the right to be esteemed} (39:67).12 Abū Sulaymān al-Khat.t.ābī said:

The Jews are anthropomorphists, and they claim that part of the revealed Torah consists in expressions that support anthropomorphism. However, the Muslims do not accept such expressions among their doctrines. It is established that the Prophet ﷺ said: "Whatever the People of the Book narrate to you, neither believe nor disbelieve them, but say:
{We believe in Allāh and whatever was revealed to us} (2:136)."13
The Prophet ﷺ is the most apt of all creation to have applied this command in the above report. The proof for the veracity of this fact is that he did not utter a single word to confirm nor deny it. All that he let show was a smile, which in one case expresses approval, in another, surprise and disapproval. Then he recited the verse which may apply to either case, but there is no mention of fingers in the verse. As for the words of one of the narrators – "in confirmation of the rabbi's words” – they are pure speculation, and the matter of this supposed confirmation remains a weak view for what he let show does not explicitly disclose one view over the other ... To adduce a proof from smiling or laughter in such a tremendous instance is therefore not allowed in the presence of two conflicting interpretations for the evidence.14

About the Prophet's ﷺ h.adīth: "There is no heart except it lies between the two fingers of the Merciful. If He wishes, He will set it aright; and if He wishes, He will lead it astray."15 It means that the hearts are under his power and dominion. They were mentioned specifically because Allāh Almighty has made the heart the seat of passing thoughts, will, resolutions and intentions, which are all the introductories of actions. Then He made all the limbs dependent on the heart in their motions and stillness, thereby showing that our actions are all measured out by Allāh and created, and that nothing happens without His will.
The Prophet ﷺ exemplified for His Companions the Divine pre-eternal power with the illustration clearest to their own understandings,16 for none has more power over something than when he has it between his fingers. It may also mean the two favors of benefit and protection, or the two traces of Divine favor and justice.17

Of the h.adīth of the Rabbi, Shaykh al-Islām al-Nawawī said: "This is among the h.adīths of the Divine Attributes. We already mentioned the two schools on this. One school gives an explanation and the other refrains from giving an explanation together with belief in it and the conviction that the outward sense is not meant. According to those who gave an explanation, they interpret the fingers here to power and strength. That is, He created them in all their vastness without the least fatigue nor weariness. People speak of the fingers in this context for exaggeration and deprecation. For example, they say: 'With one finger I can kill X.' Meaning, it requires no effort on my part. It was also said that the finger of one of His creatures may be meant. This is not impossible. In any case, the hand as limb is precluded [for Allāh]. As for the narrators words, 'the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ smiled in surprise (taʿajjuban) at what the rabbi had said and in confirmation (tas.dīqan) of his words then he said:
{and they esteem not Allāh as He has the right to be esteemed}:
the apparent meaning here is that the Prophet ﷺ confirmed the rabbis words that Allāh (swt) seizes the heavens and the earth and all creatures with the fingers, then he recited the verse that indicates something like what he had just said. Al-Qād.ī said that one of the Scholars of kalām [al-Khat.t.ābī] said: ʿHis smiling ﷺ and his surprise and recitation of the verse do not constitute a confirmation for the rabbi but rather a refutation of what he said, disapproval, and surprise at his wrong belief. For the Jews are anthropomorphists and he [the Prophet ﷺ] understood this from him. As for the words "in confirmation of him,” they are an interpolation on the part of the narrator according to his understanding.' But the first explanation is stronger.”18

These interpretations are all acceptable and they do not imply the slightest denial of any of the Divine Attributes on which there is consensus. We should nevertheless obligatorily believe that the word yad (hand) does not mean an organ as we know it, in accordance with the verse: {There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him} (42:11) and that the word yad does not imply a resemblance to creatures. Hence, Ibn H.ajars statement: "The elite of the mutakallimūn said:
'He knows not Allāh, who attributes Him resemblance to His creation, or attributes a hand to Him, or a son."19

Contrary to this, the doctrine of the Literalists consists in attributing an actual hand to the Creator. Thus Bin Baz charges al-Qād.ī ʿIyād. and Ibn H.ajar with abandoning the way of Ahl al-Sunna for stating that the Hand of Allāh does not pertain to a bodily appendage.20 This is similar to the pretext of the anthropomorphist who said: "We expelled Ibn H.ibbān from Sijistān for his lack of Religion: he used to say that Allāh is not limited."

As for the saying reported from the Prophet ﷺ: "The Black Stone is the right hand of Allāh,"21 if established as true, then it is interpreted figuratively according to the doctrinal necessity that Allāh is neither spatially confined anywhere nor divisible, and the fact that the senses witness that the Black Stone is not really the right hand of Allāh. Therefore, the h.adīth is taken variously to mean prosperity, blessing, acceptance, and the context of the Muslims pledge of loyalty to their Creator. Yet Ibn Rajab relates that Ibn al-Faʿūs al-H.anbalī (d. 521) would say: "The Black Stone is the Right Hand of Allāh in reality (h.aqīqatan)," for which he was nicknamed "The Stony" (al-H.ajarī).22 Ibn Fūrāk writes that he embarked on a study of kalām because of this h.adīth.23 Ibn Qutayba said that it was actually a saying of Ibn ʿAbbās, and he relates a saying of ʿāisha )#  that the Black Stone is the depository of the covenant of human souls with Allāh on the Day of Promise (alastu bi rabbikum). He interprets the Black Stone as representing the place where one declares ones pledge of fidelity to the Sovereign.24 Ibn H.ajar cites al-Khat.t.ābīs and al-Muh.ibb al-T.abarīs similar interpretations.25 Al-Qurt.ubī said: "It means that the Black Stone has the standing (manzila) of the Right Hand of Allāh"? metaphorically speaking."26

Another h.adīth brought up by the anthropomorphists is the narration of Abū Hurayra that "The Prophet ﷺ recited the verse (Lo! Allāh commands you that you restore deposits to their owners, and, if you judge between mankind, that you judge justly. Lo! excellent is this which Allāh admonishes you. Lo! Allāh is ever Hearer, Seer) (4:58) whereupon he e placed his thumb on his ear and his index finger on his eye."27 This h.adīth must be read together with Ibn H.ibbāns commentary:

By placing his fingers on his ear and eye the Prophet ﷺ wanted to let people know that Allāh Almighty does not hear by means of the ear that has an auditory meatus and curves, nor does He see with the eye that has eyelids, a pupil, and a white part. Highly exalted is our Lord above any likeness with His creatures in any way whatsoever! Rather, He hears and sees without organ (āla) in any way He wishes.28

Al-Bayhaqī said of the same h.adīth:

What is meant by the gesture narrated in this report is the verification that Allāh is described as possessing hearing and sight. He therefore pointed to the two places of hearing and sight in us to affirm that Allāh possesses the Attributes of hearing and sight.29

Ibn ʿAbd al-Salām gave the following fatwā concerning the interpretation of yad:

Q. What is the meaning of the Prophets e saying: "The heart of the believer is between two fingers of the Merciful, He turns it over as He wishes"? Does one contravene his obligation if he says: "I do not say anything concerning the verses and the h.adīths on the Attributes. Rather I hold the same belief concerning them as the Pious Salaf held. To speak about them is an innovation (bidʿa), and I let them pass according to their external sense,” or is interpretation necessary?

A. The meaning of the Prophet's ﷺ saying, "The heart of the believer is between two fingers of the Merciful” is that Allāh exerts His custody over it with His power and determination as He wills, changing it from disbelief to belief and from obedience to disobedience or the reverse.

It is like His saying: (Blessed is He in Whose hand is the dominion) (67:1) and: (O Prophet! Say unto those captives who are in your hands) (8:70). It is understood that the captives were not left in the physical hands of the Muslims but that they were subdued and conquered by them. The same applies to the expressions: "Specific and non-specific matters are in the hand of so-and-so,” and "The slaves and the animals are in the hand of so-and-so.” It is understood that all these mean that they are in his control (istīlā) and disposal and not in his physical hand. Similarly the saying of Allāh: (Or he agrees to forgo it in whose hand is the marriage tie) (2:237). The marriage tie is not in his physical hand, but the hand is only an expression of his empowerment and his ability to dispose of the matter.

For one to say: "I believe in this matter what the Salaf believed” is a lie. How does he believe what he has no idea about, and the meaning of which he does not know?

Nor is speaking about the meaning a reprehensible innovation, but rather an obligatory excellent innovation (bidʿa h.asana wājiba), whenever something dubious appears. The only reason the Salaf kept away from such discourse is that in their time no one construed the words of Allāh and those of His Prophet to mean what it is not permissible to construe them to mean. If any such dubiousness had appeared in their time they would have shown it to be a lie and rejected it strenuously! Thus did the Companions and the Salaf refute the Qadariyya when the latter brought out their innovation, although they did not use to address such matters before the Qadariyya appeared on the scene. Nor did they reply to the individuals who mentioned them. Nor did any of the Companions relate any of it from the Prophet ﷺ since there was no need for it. and Allāh knows best."30

The Māturīdī position is comprehensively stated by Fakhr al-Islām al-Pazdawi (d. 482):

For us [Māturīdīs], (those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) (3:7) have no share in the knowledge of the ambiguous content of Qurān (al-mutashābih) other than pure acquiescence (al-taslīm), believing in the real nature of the meaning (h.aqqiyyat al-murād) in the Divine presence and that the pause at His saying: (None knows its explanation save Allāh) (3:7) is required (waqf wājib). The People of Belief belong to one of two levels in knowledge: some over-zealously demand that it be read without pause - those are tested with a form of ignorance - and some demand the pause - those are honored with a form of knowledge"?. An example of the ambiguous verses are the individual letters that open certain suras. Another example is the affirmation of the vision of Allāh (swt) with the sight of the eyes in reality in the hereafter, according to the explicit text of the Qurān: (On that day will faces be resplendent, looking towards their Lord) (75:22-23). For He exists with the Attribute of perfection, and the fact that He can be seen both by Himself and others, is among the characteristics of perfection; moreover, the believer is apt to receive such bestowal of the Divine gift. However, the affirmation of direction is precluded (ithbāt al-jiha mumtaniʿ). It follows that the description of the vision is among the ambiguities, ans so it is obligatory to acquiesce to it while believing in its reality. Similarly, the affirmation of the Hand and the Face are real (ithbāt al-yad wal-wajh h.aqq) in our School, known in its principle but ambiguous in its description (maʿlūmun bi as.lihi mutashābihun bi was.fihi). It will not be permitted to invalidate the principle on the grounds that one is unable to comprehend the description. The Muʿtazila went astray only in this respect, for they rejected the principles because of their ignorance of the Attributes and became nullifiers-of-the-Attributes (muʿat.t.ila).”31

Allāh knows best.

Notes

[1] In Ibn al-ʿArabī al-Mālikī, Ah.kām al-Qur'ān (4:1740).

[2] This is the “Salafī” position as stated by ʿAbd Allāh al-H.āshidī, who openly attributes form and shape to Allāh in his comments on al-Bayhaqī's al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (2:60): “As for our Lord, we affirm that He possesses a form (sūra)” and (2:67) “As for us we affirm a form (sūra) for Allāh unlike forms.” Rather, as the first line in Ibn ʿAbd al-Salām's Mulh.a states, “He is not a body endowed with form.” Note that the Karrāmiyya said: “Allāh is a body unlike bodies.” Al-Dhahabī, Siyar (10:10). Worse yet is the citation of the Torah's verse “We shall create man in our image and likeness” by the anthropomorphist author of ʿAqīdat Ahl al-?mān fī Khalqi ?dama ʿalā S.ūrat al-Rah.mān! (“The Doctrine of the Believers Concerning the Creation of ?dam in the Image of the Merciful”). The pure Sunnī position is: “Allāh is described with the Attribute of Face and that of Hand, together with the upholding of His Transcendence (tanzīh) above having a form (s.ūra) and a limb (jārih.a).” ʿAla' al-Dīn al-Bukhārī (d. 730) in his commentary on al-Pazdawi's Us.ūl entitled Kashf al-Asrār (1:60). Al-Bayhaqī states the Sunnī position thus: “It is impermissible that the Creator be attributed form (s.ūra), nor does He possess form, because form is variegated (mukhtalifa) and appearances are mutually contrasted (al-hay'āt mutad.ād.d.a). Because of their mutual contrast He cannot be described as having them in general; likewise, he cannot be described as having one of them in particular.” Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 289; H.āshidī ed. 2:60). Cf. Ibn al-Jawzī in Dafʿ Shibah al-Tashbīh (1998 al-Kawtharī repr. p. 35): “Know that it is obligatory upon every Muslim (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim" to firmly hold that it is impermissible to attribute to Allāh (swt) form (sūra), which consists in physiognomy (hay'a) and combination (ta'līf).”

[3] Ibn ʿAsākir, Tabyīn (p. 150-151).

[4] Abū Bakr ibn Fūrāk, Mujarrad Maqālāt al-Ashʿarī (Beirut, 1987) p. 44.

[5] See Ibn Khafīf's al-ʿAqīda al-S.ah.īh.a  28.

[6] Tāj al-ʿArūs (10:417).

[7] Al-Būt.ī, al-Salafiyya (p. 132-133). For “Hands” = kindness, mercy, generosity, etc. see al-Qārī, Mirqāt al-Mafātīh. (1892 ed. 2:137, 1994 ed. 3:302) and al-Nawawī, Sharh. S.ah.īh. Muslim, h.adīth “Then He stretches out both hands, saying: ʿWho shall loan One Who is neither indigent nor inequitable?'” This phrase concludes the h.adīth of descent in one of Muslim's narrations.

[8] Cf. Imām Mālik as narrated by Ibn Wahb in this Appendix.

[9] Narrated from Abū Hurayra (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Abū Hurayra" by Muslim (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim" , Ah.mad, al-Nasā'ī, Ibn Mājah, and al-Tirmidhī who said it is h.asan s.ah.īh..

[10] Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 330-331; H.āshidī ed. 2:159-160).

[11] In Fath. al-Bārī (3:280).

[12] Narrated from Ibn Masʿūd by al-Bukhārī, Muslim, al-Tirmidhī, and Ah.mad (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim".

[13] Narrated from Abū Hurayra (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Abū Hurayra" by al-Bukhārī. The complete narration states: “The People of the Book would read the Torah in Hebrew and explain it in Hebrew to the People of Islām, whereupon the Prophet MHMD  said: ʿNeither believe nor disbelieve the People of the Book, but say: (We believe in Allāh and whatever was revealed to us) (2:136).

[14] Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 334-338; H.āshidī ed. 2:169-170). Al-Qurt.ubī also explained the Prophet's MHMD  smile here to mean disapproval in light of the verse that follows it and rejected the phrase “in confirmation of the rabbi's words” as an narrator's interpolation. Cf. Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 336) and Fath. al-Bārī (13:398) for both al-Khat.t.ābī and al-Qurt.ubī's explanations. This is also al-Qād.ī ʿIyād.'s position as mentioned by al-Nawawī in Sharh. S.ah.īh. Muslim (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim" and it is confirmed by another narration connected with the revelation of verse 39:67. Al-Mubārakfūrī typically voices the opposite opinion in Tuh.fat al-Ah.wadhī and cites Ibn Khuzayma's (d. 311) vituperation in his al-Tawh.īd that whoever claims the Prophet MHMD  smiled in lieu of explicitly upbraiding, does not deserve to be called Muslim. This shows that the interpretation of the smile as meaning disapproval existed among the Salaf and long before al-Khat.t.ābī.

[15] Narrated from ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAmr by Muslim and Ah.mad (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim" , from Anas by al-Tirmidhī (h.asan s.ah.īh.) and Ibn Mājah, and from al-Nawwās ibn Samʿān al-Kilābī by Ah.mad, al-Nasā'ī, Ibn Mājah, Ibn H.ibbān, al-H.ākim, and others, all with sound chains. Al-H.ākim declared the h.adīth sound and al-Dhahabī concurred. The continuation of the h.adīth states that the Prophet MHMD  used to say: “O Transformer of hearts! Make firm our hearts in Your Religion,” and that he also said: “and the balance is in the hand of the Merciful, He elevates a people while he abases others, and so until the Day of Resurrection.”

[16] This is also al-Wāh.idī's (d. 468) explanation in his Asbāb al-Nuzūl (p. 312 #774).

[17] Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 341; H.āshidī ed. 2:174).

[18] Al-Nawawī (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Nawawī" , Sharh. S.ah.īh. Muslim (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Muslim" (17:129-131).

[19] Ibn H.ajar, Fath. al-Bārī (1959 ed. 3:361 #1425).

[20] Ibn H.ajar, Fath. al-Bārī (1959 ed. 3:361 n.; 1989 ed. 3:357 n.)

[21] Narrated from Ibn ʿAbbās, Jābir, Anas, and others by Ibn Abī ʿUmar (rad.i-Allahu ʿanhu) "Umar" al-Maʿdanī in his Musnad, al-T.abarānī, al-Suyūt.ī in his Jāmiʿ al-Saghīr (1:516 #3804-3805), Ibn ʿAsākir in Tārīkh Dimashq (15:90- 92), al-Khat.īb in Tārīkh Baghdād (6:328), and others. It is considered forged by Ibn al-Jawzī and Ibn ʿAdī (al-Kāmil 1:342). Cf. al-Ah.dab, Zawā'id Tārīkh Baghdād (5:321-323 #949). However, al-ʿAjlūnī stated that it is s.ah.īh. as a halted report from Ibn ʿAbbās as narrated by al-Qud.āʿī with the wording: “The Corner [of the Black Stone] (al-rukn) is the Right Hand of Allāh on earth ... ,” and declared it h.asan as a h.adīth of the Prophet MHMD . Ibn Qutayba in Ta'wīl Mukhtalif al-H.adīth (1972 ed. p. 215=1995 ed. p. 198, 262) said that it was a saying of Ibn ʿAbbās and relates a saying of ʿāisha (rad.i-Allahu ʿanha) ʿāisha "that the Black Stone is the depository of the covenant of human souls with Allāh (swt) on the Day of Promise (alastu bi rabbikum). Its mention in the Reliance of the Traveller (p. 853b) as “narrated by al-H.ākim, who declared it s.ah.īh., from ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAmr,” is incorrect. Note: An authentic narration states that the Black Stone shall appear with two eyes and a tongue on the Day of Resurrection. Narrated by al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah, Ah.mad, al-Dārimī, Ibn H.ibbān (#3711-3712), and others.

[22] Ibn Rajab, Dhayl T.abaqāt al-H.anābila (1:173-174 #74).

[23] As related by Ibn al-Subkī in T.abaqāt al-Shāfiʿiyya (4:129).

[24] Ibn Qutayba, Ta'wīl Mukhtalif al-H.adīth (1972 ed. p. 215; 1995 ed. p. 198, 262).

[25] In Fath. al-Bārī (1959 ed. 3:463 #1520).

[26] In al-Asnā fī Sharh. Asmā' Allāh al-H.usnā (2:90-91).

[27] Narrated by Abū Dāwūd, Ibn H.ibbān (1:498 #265) with a sound chain, his shaykh Ibn Khuzayma in al-Tawh.īd, al-H.ākim (1:24), al-Lālikā'ī in Sharh. Iʿtiqād Ahl al-Sunna (3:410 #788) and al-Bayhaqī in al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt. Al-Kawtharī comments (Asmā' p. 179 n. 2): “This h.adīth is narrated only through [H.armala ibn ʿImrān al-Tujībī] al-H.ājib, and if it were considered authentic among the people of Madīna, the Imām of the Abode of Emigration would not have shown the greatest severity in prohibiting this gesture, as in al-Qād.ī ʿIyād.'s al-Shifā'.” (See above, n. NOTEREF _Ref439133760 \h 1.) Al-H.āshidī, quoting this comment, alters it to read (Asmā' 1:463 n.): “This h.adīth is narrated only through al-H.ājib, although it is authentic ...”!

[28] Ibn H.ibbān (1:498 #265).

[29] Al-Asmā' wal-S.ifāt (Kawtharī ed. p. 179-180; H.āshidī ed. 1:462-463).

[30] Al-ʿIzz ibn ʿAbd al-Salām, Fatāwā (p. 55-57) and al-Fatāwā al-Maws.iliyya (p. 45-47).

[31] Al-Pazdawi in ʿAla' al-Dīn al-Bukhārī's commentary on al-Pazdawi's Us.ūl entitled Kashf al-Asrār (1:55-60). ʿAla' al-Dīn al-Bukhārī comments: (1:60) “By saying: ʿFor us,' the Shaykh shunned the position of those who say: ʿAllāh is not to be described as possessing a face and hands, rather, what is meant by the face is contentment (al-ridā) or the Essence (al-dhāt) and the like; and what is meant by the hand is power or favor and the like.' The Shaykh therefore said: Rather, Allāh is described with the Attribute of Face and that of Hand, together with the upholding of His Transcendence (tanzīh) above having a form (s.ūra) and a limb (jārih.a).... Similarly with the affirmation of modality (ithbāt al-kayfiyya): its description is ambiguous, therefore it is obligatory to acquiesce to it, firmly believing in its reality without busying oneself with interpretation.”









See also a question and answer regarding the above text 'The "Hand" of Allāh'

 

 





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