An incident of "Istighatha"
Using Intermediaries and Intercessors
by GFH

In SP AH wrote:
One night, the Prophet of Allah ﷺ may Allah bless him and grant him peace - was in his house and was heard to proclaim ʿI am here!' three times and ʿYou have been granted help' also three times. Umm al- Mu'minin, Maymunah - may Allah be well pleased with her - asked the Prophet - may Allah bless him and grant him peace - whom he had been talking to since there was no one present. He ﷺ may Allah bless him and grant him peace - replied, ʿI was talking to a person called Rajiz from the tribe of Bani Ka'ab. He asked for help from me against the Quraysh.' Umm al- Mu'minin, Maymunah - may Allah be well pleased with her - said that when she finished fajr prayer the next morning, she heard Rajiz calling out in the streets of Madina: "Ya Rasul Allah! Help us and call the servants of Allah to help us."
Shaykh Yusuf al-Nabhani, Allah have mercy on him, cites two hadiths in this respect with their full wording in the chapter of the Prophet's ʿilm al-ghayb in his encyclopedia of the Prophetic miracles, Hujjat Allah ʿala al-Alamin bi-Muʿjizat Sayyid al-Mursalin (p. 493):

<<Al-T.abarānī narrates that Maymūna the Mother of the believers said: "The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ upon him blessings and peace, was sleeping with me one night and he got up to make ablution and pray. I heard him say during his ablution in the dead of night:

"Labbayka labbayka labbayka"

– [like this,] three times – then:

"nus.irta nus.irta nus.irta"

[like this,] three times. When he came out, I asked him, "Messenger of Allāh, I heard you say, during your ablution, 'In your service!' three times, and 'To your defense!' three times, as if you were addressing someone. Was there someone with you?" He replied: "This was the poetry champion (rājiz) of the Banū Kaʿb" – one of the sub-tribes of the Khuzāʿa – "invoking my aid (yastas.rikhunī)(1) and asserting that the Quraysh had helped the Banū Bakr against them." The latter had allied themselves with the Quraysh the day of the H.udaybiya truce while the Khuzāʿa had allied themselves with the Prophet ﷺ upon him blessings and peace, and he became duty-bound to defend them. The support of the Quraysh for the Banū Bakr against the Khuzāʿa was therefore a violation of their truce with the Messenger of Allāh, upon him blessings and peace. This incident was the catalyst for the conquest of Makka and, immediately afterwards, he prepared himself to enter it and conquered it.(2)

<<Ibn Ish.āq said – as found in Ibn Hishām's Sīra – that when the Banū Bakr and the Quraysh defeated the Khuzāʿa and looted them, violating the terms of the solemn pact to which they had agreed with the Messenger of Allāh, upon him blessings and peace, by warring with the Khuzāʿa, his formal allies, ʿAmr ibn Sālim al-Khuzāʿī, one of the Banū Kaʿb there, rode out until he came to see the Messenger of Allāh, upon him blessings and peace, in al-Madīna. His coming gave the impetus for the conquest of Makka.(3) He stood before the Prophet ﷺ upon him blessings and peace, as the latter sat in the Mosque, in full sight of the people, and declaimed:

Lord! I am appealing to Muh.ammad
by the time-honored pact of both our fathers.(4)

You(5) were a father and we a son;
then we entered Islām and remained loyal.

Help us, and may Allāh help you always!
Summon His servants, they shall come in arms,

Among them, the Prophet mobilized--
if he is wronged, his face glowers.

In his legion he marches, a sea, foaming.
Quraysh broke its treaty with you!

They violated the truce they pledged you,
made me as good as dead and buried!(6)

They claimed I could not call on anyone
although they are meaner and less by far!

They snared us at Watīr during our vigils
and slew us as we bowed and prostrated.(7)

<<The Prophet ﷺ upon him blessings and peace, said: "In your defense, ʿAmr ibn Sālim!" Then the Prophet ﷺ upon him blessings and peace, glimpsed a cloud in the sky and said: "Truly, this cloud is initiating the victory of the Banū Kaʿb." Then he geared himself for the conquest of Makka and conquered it.(8)>>


(1) Ibn H.ajar in al-Is.āba (4:631) mentions another wording, "invoking my mercy (yastarh.imunī)."

(2) Narrated from Maymūna by al-T.abarānī in the Kabīr (23:433-434 §1052) and S.aghīr (2:167-169 §968) and al-Taymī in his Dalā'il (p. 73-74 §59), both with a slightly weak chain because of Yah.yā ibn Sulaymān ibn Nad.la al-Madīnī cf. al-Haythamī (6:163-164) although Ibn ʿAdī in al-Kāmil (7:255 §2156) said "he narrated reports from Mālik and the Madinans, most of which are valid." Ibn H.ibbān included him in his Thiqāt (9:269). Cf. Is.āba (4:631), Fath. (7:520), Sīra H. alabiyya (3:5), and Dah.lān's Sīra (2:76-77).

(3) Cf. Ibn ʿUmar's narration in Ibn H.ibbān (13:140 §5996) and Ibn H. ajar, Talkhīs. al-H.abīr (4:131 §1929).

(4) Allāhumma innī nāshidu Muh.ammadā / h.ilfa abīnā wa'abīhi al- atladā.

(5) I.e. the Banū Hāshim and Banū ʿAbd al-Mut.t.alib with a rhetorical trope of apostrope (iltifāt).

(6) Wa-jaʿalū lī fī kadā'in ras.adā, misspelt in al-Nabhānī as wa- jaʿalū lī fīka dā'in ras.adā.

(7) Ibn ʿAsākir (43:519) narrated from Ibn al-Musayyab: "There is not one homebound woman of Banū Khuzāʿa except she memorized the verses of ʿAmr ibn Sālim al-Khuzāʿī to the Messenger of Allāh, upon him blessings and peace."

(8) Narrated
(i) through al-Zuhrī from ʿUrwa ibn al-Zubayr from the Companion al-Miswar ibn Makhrama and the Tābiʿī Marwān ibn al-H.akam by Ibn Ish.āq in the Maghāzī (cf. Ibn Hishām 5:48, al-T.ah.āwī, Sharh. Maʿānī al-Athār 3:315-316, Is.āba 4:630-631, and Bidāya 4:278), al-T. abarī in his Tārīkh (2:152-153), Ibn ʿAsākir in his Tārīkh (43:519- 520), and al-Bayhaqī in the Sunan al-Kubrā (9:233) and Dalā'il;
(ii) from Ibn ʿAbbās by Ibn Mandah and Abū Nuʿaym in Maʿrifat al-S.ah.āba as well as Ibn al-Athīr in Usd al-Ghāba (4:225-226 cf. Is.āba 5:285);
(iii) from Abū Hurayra by al-Bazzār and al-Bayhaqī (cf. Bidāya 4:281) with a fair chain according to Ibn H.ajar in the Fath. (7:520) and al- Haythamī (6:162);
(iv) from the Tābiʿīn Abū Salama and Yah.yā ibn ʿAbd al-Rah.mān ibn H.āt.ib by Ibn Abī Shayba (7:398 §36900) and
(v) also mursal from ʿIkrima by Ibn Abī Shayba (7:400-401 §36902) and al-T.ah. āwī in Sharh. Maʿānī al-Athār (3:291, 3 :312-313). The bracketed segment is narrated only through al-Zuhrī. Cf. Iktifā' (2:215); al- Fākihī, Akhbār Makka (5:103); Istīʿāb (3:1175-1176); Ibn al-Qayyim, Zād (3:348-349); Sīra H.alabiyya (3:5-6); Ibn Taymiyya, al-S.ārim al- Maslūl (2:214); Is.āba (1:122), Fath. (7:519-520), Talkhīs. al-H.abīr (4:131-132 §1929), Ibn al-Athīr, Kāmil (2:162), al-Suhaylī, Rawd. (2: 265), and Kanz (§14422, §30166, §30195, §30204). Al-Watīr or Watīn is a Khuzāʿa watering-point in the lowest area of Makka cf. Yāqūt and al- Nihāya. Ibn Ish.āq and al-Wāqidī said that ʿAmr was accompanied by forty riders of the Banū Khuzāʿa when he arrived in Madīna. Another report by al-Bārūdī with a weak munqat.iʿ chain attributes those verses to Budayl ibn Kulthūm ibn Sālim al-Khuzāʿī cf. Is.āba (1:274).

Blessings and peace on the Prophet his Family, and all his Companions.

[SP 2006-03-02]

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