The Prophetic Title:

by Sh. G. F. Haddad

Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim

One of the names by which the Prophet Muhammad is known ﷺ - upon him blessings and peace - is Khayru-l-Khalq or "Best of Creation." Other similar names of his with identical meaning are Khayru-l-Bariyya, Khayru Khalqillah, Khayru-l-ʿAlamina Turra, Khayru-n-Nas, Khayru Hadhihi-l-Umma, and Khīratullah. These titles refers to his high status over all human Prophets and Messengers as well as over the Jinn and angels - upon them peace.
The Consensus of Muslims past and present - i.e. Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jamaʿa - over the matter was indicated in Shaykh Ibrahim al-Laqqani's (d. 1041) words, "steer clear of dissent" in his famous poem Jawharat al-Tawhid
("The Gem of Monotheism"):

65. wa afdalu al-khalqi ʿala al-itlāqi
Nabiyyunā fa mil ʿani al-shiqāqi.

And the best of creatures in absolute terms
is our Prophet, so steer clear of dissent.

Al-Bajuri (d. 1276), Sharh Jawharat al-Tawhid (1971 ed. p. 290): "I.e. among jinn, humankind, and angels, in the world and the hereafter, in all the attributes of goodness." Al-Sawi (d. 1241), Sharh Jawharat al-Tawhid (1999 ed. p. 295): "This assertion-of-superiority (tafdīl) is by Consensus (ijmāʿ) of the Muslims, both Sunnis and Muʿtazila, except al-Zamakhshari [in al-Kashshaf (4:712), Surat al-Takwir] who violated the Consensus." ʿAbd al-Salam ibn Ibrahim al-Laqqani (d. 1078), Sharh Jawharat al-Tawhid (1990 ed. p. 186): "It is obligatory (wājib) on every legally responsible person to believe that he ﷺ is the best of all, and one who denies it commits a sin, is guilty of innovation, and deserves to be taught a lesson."

66. wal-anbiyā yalūnahu fil-fadli
wa baʿdahum malā'ikah dhil-fadli

And the Prophets follow him in preferability
and after them the noble angels,

Al-Bajuri (p. 293): "Al-Qadi Abu ʿAbd Allah al-Halimi [see on him the introduction to our translation of al-Bayhaqi's al-Asma' wa al-Sifat] together with others, such as the Muʿtazila, considered that the angels are better than the Prophets except our Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ʿalayhi wa Alihi wa Sallam. Al-Saʿd [al-Taftazani] said [in Sharh al-ʿAqa'id al-Nasafiyya]: 'There is nothing decisive in these issues.' Taj al-Din [ibn] al-Subki said [in Tabaqat al-Shafiʿiyya al-Kubra]: 'Safety lies in refraining from speech on this question and to enter it in detail without decisive evidence is to enter into great peril, a ruling over something over which we are incapable of ruling.'"

67. hādhā wa qawmun fassalū idh faddalū
wa baʿdu kullin baʿdahu qad yafdulu

This said, some [i.e. the Maturidis] narrowed its terms
in preferring some [of the angels and Prophets]
respectively over others [of the angels and Prophets]

Al-Bajuri (p. 295): "And this is surely the more correct position (wa hādhihi hiya al-tariqa al-rājiha)." Note that he prefers the Maturidi position here over that of the Jumhūr of the Ashʿaris although he is Ashʿari, while the author's son, Shaykh ʿAbd al-Salam al-Laqqani, said all angels were preferable to all human beings other than Prophets - may Allah have mercy on them and on all Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jamaʿa. Al-Laqqani (p. 186-187): "It is obligatory to believe the preferability of the better (afdaliyyatu al-afdal) exactly according to whatever ruling was transmitted (ʿala tabqi mā warada al-hukmu bihi): if in detail then in detail, if in general then in general (tafsīlan fil-tafsīli wa ijmālan fil-ijmāli). And it is not allowed to hasten to specific designation (al-hujūm ʿalā al-taʿyīn) of something which was not divinely ordained (lam yarid fīhi tawqīf)....

Qadi Taj al-Din ibn al-Subki said: 'The preferability of human beings over the angels is not among the matters one is obliged to believe nor harm those who ignore them. If one meets Allah without the least idea about the matter in its entirety, he would not have committed any sin. For people were not tasked to know it. And safety lies in refraining from speech on this question, etc.'"

Al-Sawi (p. 297-298), al-Bajuri (p. 296): "Its conclusion being that our Prophet ﷺ is the best of creation in absolute terms, then Ibrahim, then Musa, then ʿIsa, then Nuh - upon them peace - then the rest of the Messengers, then the non-Messenger Prophets - some of them being superior to others, but Allah alone knows in what detail, then Gibril, then Israfil, then Mika'il, then ʿIzra'il, then 'common human beings' (ʿawamm al-bashar) such as Abu Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthman, and ʿAli, then the mass of the angels."

Proofs of the Prophet's Superiority to All Creation

A dear Muslim brother sent the following query:
"some brothers even question that the Messenger of Allah was the Best of Creation. Do you have something handy that I can allude to as 'evidence' in this regard?"
"They swear by Allah to you (Muslims) to please you [all], but Allah, with His messenger, hath more right that they should please H/him if they are believers" (9:62). Do they know any other Prophet or angel-brought-near with whom Allah Most High shared as many of His own Names in the Qur'an as He did with the Prophet ﷺ ? See the end of this post on this. With respect to his foremost name - Muhammad - sallallahu ʿalayhi wa Alihi wa Sallam, consider the poetic verse of Hassan ibn Thabit (RA):
wa shaqqa lahu min ismihi liyujillahu
fa dhul-ʿarshi Mahmūdun wa hādhā Muhammadu

And He drew out for him [a name]
from His own Name so as to dignify him greatly:
The Owner of the Throne is the Glorious [Mahmūd],
and this is the Praiseworthy [Muhammad]!

Do they know any other Prophet or angel whom Allah addressed directly and by whose life He swore? "By thy life (O Muhammad)!" (15:72); "And who is better in his discourse than he who calls unto Allah and does good and says: I am one of the Muslims?" (41:33) i.e. who is better in speech than the Prophet ﷺ ? "Lo! those who believe and do good works are the best of created beings" (98:7) i.e. the Prophet ﷺ is the best of created beings; "Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct" (49:13) i.e. the Prophet ﷺ is the noblest of those to whom the Qur'an is addressed in the sight of Allah;
"And lo! thou (Muhammad) art [I swear] of a tremendous nature" (68:4). The reality of this compliment - khuluqin ʿazim - can be fathomed only by the Speaker Himself and whoever He wills; "Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spake, while _some of them He exalted (above others) in degree_" (2:253) i.e. the Prophet ﷺ .

"And we preferred some of the Prophets above others" (17:55) then He said: "It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised estate" (17:79), a Station which the Prophet ﷺ said none but he would receive. and this is the Station of Intercession at the right of the Glorious Throne as we described at length in the posting "The Seating of the Prophet ﷺ on the Throne."

"And [have We not] exalted thy fame?" (94:4) Mujahid said: "Meaning, every time I [Allah] am mentioned, you [Muhammad] are mentioned." Ibn Kathir mentioned it in his Tafsir. Al-Shafiʿi narrated the same explanation from Ibn Abi Najih and so did Ibn ʿAta' as cited by al-Nabahani in al-Anwar al-Muhammadiyya min al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (p. 379). Al-Baydawi said in his Tafsir: "And what higher elevation than to have his name accompany His Name in the two phrases of witnessing, and to have his obedience equal His obedience??"

"And My Mercy embraceth all things, therefore I shall ordain It for those who ward off (evil) and pay the poor due, and those who believe Our revelations" (7:156); and He said "truly the Mercy of Allah is near those who do good": "Inna rahmat Allahi qaribun min al-muhsinin" (7:56) without putting qaribun in the feminine (qaribatun) although rahma is feminine, because in reality that rahma is the Prophet ﷺ , as explicited in the verse: "wa ma arsalnaka illa rahmatan lil-ʿalamin": "And We did not send you (Muhammad) except as a Mercy to the worlds" (21:107); "Say: In the bounty of Allah and in His mercy: therein [alone] let them rejoice. It is better than what they hoard" (10:58). Ibn ʿAbbas said: "The bounty of Allah is Knowledge [of Tawhid], and His mercy is the Prophet ﷺ ." Abu al-Shaykh narrated it as stated by al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur (4:367). Al-Alusi in Ruh al-Maʿani (10:141) and Abu al-Suʿud in his Tafsir (4:156) said that the bounty is general while the mercy is specific and therefore emphasized. Al-Razi in al-Tafsir al-Kabir (17:123) said the command is emphatically restrictive, meaning that a human being should not rejoice in anything else than the mercy.

"Truly, Allah and His angels send praise and blessings [forever] upon the Prophet. O ye who believe! Praise and bless the Prophet with utmost laud and blessing" (33:56); "That ye (mankind) may believe in Allah and His messenger, and may honor h/Him, and may revere h/Him, and may glorify h/Him at early dawn and at the close of day" (48:9). Al-Nawawi said that the scholars of Qur'anic commentary have given this verse two lines of explanation, one group giving the three personal pronouns "HIM" a single referent, namely, either Allah ("Him") or the Prophet ("him"); the other group distinguishing between two referents, namely, the Prophet ﷺ for the first two ("honor and revere him"), and Allah for the last ("glorify Him"). Those of the first group that said the pronouns all refer to the Prophet ﷺ explained "glorify him" (tusabbihuhu) here to mean: "declare him devoid of inappropriate attributes and pray for him." "And Allah sufficeth as a witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" (48:28-29).
Every Quranic Verse Proof of the Prophet's Status as 'Best of Creation'

There are, in fact, 6,666 Qur'anic proofs that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ - Sallallahu ʿalayhi wa Alihi wa Sallam - is (not "was") without doubt the Best of creation, namely, the verses of the Holy Qur'an, since it is the greatest of all revealed Books and their Seal, the only Book that Allah guaranteed to preserve, and the universal Revelation for all creation (including angels, cf. al-Haytami, Fatawa Hadithiyya p. 69, 151-154) as opposed to previous Revelations which were only for the people among whom they were revealed. And this Book was revealed to the heart of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ : "And lo! it is a revelation of the Lord of the Worlds which the True Spirit hath brought down upon thy heart" (26:192-194). They might be confused by the narrations forbidding the Companions from boasting the merits of one Prophet over the others, or preferring him over Musa, or preferring him over Yunus, Allah bless and greet our Prophet and them. However, these narrations denote humbleness on the part of the Seal of Prophets ﷺ . That is what all the Ulema said in reply to the superficial contradiction between the latter narrations and the verses and narrations that firmly establish his superior status.

Ibn ʿAbbas (RA) said: "Allah has preferred (faddala) Muhammad over all Prophets and over the dwellers of the heavens (= the angels)." They said: "O Ibn ʿAbbas, how did He prefer him to the dwellers of the heavens?" He replied: "Allah Most High said: 'And one of them [the angels] who should say: Lo! I am a God beside Him, that one We should repay with hell" (21:29) but He said: 'Lo! We have given thee (O Muhammad) a signal victory That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin that which is past and that which is to come, and may perfect His favor unto thee, and may guide thee on a right path' (48:1-2)." They said: "And how did He prefer him over the Prophets?" He replied: "Allah Most High says: 'And We never sent a messenger save with the language of his folk'(14:4) but He said: 'And We have not sent thee (O Muhammad) save unto all mankind' (34:28)."1[1] There are many other more or less direct textual proofs to that effect, among them the fact that Allah ordered the angels to learn the names of things from Adam, but He ordered the universes to learn about Allah Himself from the Prophet ﷺ : "The Beneficent! Ask any one informed concerning Him" (25:59); the fact that the Prophet ﷺ is to witness not only over his own Community but over all others (2:143 and 4:41); the fact that the Prophet ﷺ alone, of all humankind, jinn, and angels, has been given the Maqam al-Mahmud (17:79) i.e. the Glorious Station (of intercession with Allah Most High) and, in the Sunna, the fact that Allah did not give His intimate friendship to any angel, but He gave it to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ as well as to Sayyidina Ibrahim (AS), and He made the Messenger of Allah the Imam of all Prophets and Messengers when he prayed among them in Masjid al-Aqsa, the intercessor for all the Communities (in the hadith "People shall surge like waves..."), and the Master of Humankind (Sayyidu al-Nas) together with the fact that he was known in the Divine presence as a Prophet while Adam (AS) was still being created, and that the latter sought his intercession because he saw his name written on the Throne.

Adam (as) asks sought intercession and forgiveness with the Prophet's name In the chapter concerning the Prophet's superiority over all other Prophets in his great book titled al-Wafa bi Ahwal al-Mustafa', Ibn al-Jawzi states: "Part of the demonstration of his superiority to other Prophets is the fact that Adam (AS) asked his Lord through the sanctity (hurma) of Muhammad ﷺ that He relent towards him." The most authentic chain for this report is not that of al-Hakim's narration from ʿUmar through ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn Aslam who is weak (daʿīf), but that of the Companion Maysarat al-Fajr who narrates it as follows:
I asked: "O Messenger of Allah, when were you [first] a Prophet?" He replied: "When Allah created the earth 'Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens'(2:29), and created the Throne, He wrote on the leg of the Throne: "Muhammad the Messenger of Allah is the Seal of Prophets" (Muhammadun Rasūlullāhi Khātamu al-Anbiyā'). Then Allah created the Garden in which He made Adam and Hawwa' dwell, and He wrote my name on the gates, its tree-leaves, its domes and tents, at a time when Adam was still between the spirit and the body. When Allah Most High instilled life into him he looked at the Throne and saw my name, whereupon Allah informed him that 'He [Muhammad ﷺ] is the liege-lord of all your descendants.' When Satan deceived them both, they repented and sought intercession to Allah with my name."2[2]

Another great proof that the Messenger of Allah is the Best of Creation is the Consensus of the Imams and Ulema of Ahl al-Sunna, violating which are three scholars on record: the Zahiri Ibn Hazm; the Muʿtazili al-Zamakhshari; and the Mujassim Ibn Abi al-ʿIzz who was imprisoned for it as related by Ibn Hajar in his Inba' al-Ghumr (1:258-260). Shaykh ʿAbd Allah al-Talidi said in his Tahdhib al-Shifa' (p. 162): "The dissent of Ibn Hazm and al-Zamakhshari carries no weight."

Sayyid Abu al-Fadl ʿAbd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Siddiq al-Ghumari al-Hasani wrote a book titled, Dilalat al-Qur'ani al-Mubin ʿala anna al-Nabiyya Afdalu al-ʿAlamin ("The Indication of the Manifest Qur'an that the Prophet is the Best of the Universes"), in which he listed the verses to that effect Sura by Sura and in the introduction of which he mentioned the following story: "Al-Shaʿrani in Tabaqat al-Awliya' narrated from [his Shaykh] the Knower of Allah Abu al-Mawahib al-Shadhili that the latter said: 'A dispute took place between me and a certain person in the Mosque of al-Azhar over the statement of the author of al-Burda [Imam al-Busiri]:

Famablaghu al-ʿilmi fīhi annahu basharun
wa annahu khayru khalqillāhi kullihimi

The apex of knowledge concerning him is that he is a human being
and that he is the best of all the creation of Allah.

Whereupon that person said: He has no proof for this. I said to him: Consensus (ijmaʿ) has formed over this. He did not change his view. Later I saw the Prophet - Sallallahu ʿalayhi wa Alihi wa Sallam - and with him were Abu Bakr and ʿUmar, Allah be well-pleased with them, sitting at the pulpit of the Azhar Mosque. He said to me: Marhaban bihabibi - Welcome to my dear beloved! Then he said to his friends: Do you know what happened today? They said No, O Messenger of Allah. He said: So-and-so the Wretch (Fulan al-Taʿis) believes that the angels are better than me!... What is wrong with him, disbelieving in the Consensus?'"

Following is a list of works containing proofs from the Qur'an and Sunna of the superiority of the Prophet ﷺ over all creation:

1. Al-Qadi ʿIyad, al-Shifa' fi Maʿrifati Huquq al-Mustafa ﷺ
2. Abu Nuʿaym, Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
3. Al-Bayhaqi, Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
4. Al-Faryabi, Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
5. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Wafa bi Ahwal al-Mustafa ﷺ
6. Ibn ʿAbd al-Salam, Bidayat al-Sul fi Tafdil al-Rasul
7. Ibn Dihya, al-Mustawfa li Asma' al-Mustafa ﷺ
8. Al-ʿAzafi, Sharh Asma' al-Nabi ﷺ
9. Ibn al-ʿArabi's Chapter on the Prophetic Names in ʿAridat al-Ahwadhi
10. Al-Bayhaqi's Chapter on the Prophetic Names in Shuʿab al-Iman
11. Al-Busiri, al-Burda
12. Al-Busiri, al-Hamziyya
13. Al-Busiri, al-Muhammadiyya
14. Al-Suyuti, al-Khasa'is al-Kubra
15. Al-Suyuti, al-Bahja al-Bahiyya fil-Asma' al-Nabawiyya
16. Al-Suyuti, al-Riyad al-Aniqa fi Sharh Asma' Khayr al-Khaliqa
17. Al-Jazuli, Dala'il al-Khayrat
18. Al-Fasi, Sharh Dala'il al-Khayrat
19. Al-Sakhawi, al-Qawl al-Badiʿ fi al-Salat ʿala al-Nabi al-Shafiʿ
20. Al-Qastallani, al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya
21. Al-Zurqani, Sharh al-Mawahib
22. Al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa'
23. Al-Qari, Sharh al-Shama'il al-Nabawiyya li al-Tirmidhi
24. Al-Munawi, Sharh al-Shama'il al-Nabawiyya li al-Tirmidhi
25. Al-Baghawi, Sharh al-Shama'il al-Nabawiyya li al-Tirmidhi
26. Al-Nabahani, al-Asma fima li Sayyidina Muhammad min al-Asma
27. Al-Nabahani, Wasa'il al-Wusul ila Shama'il al-Rasul
28. Al-Nabahani, Shawahid al-Haqq
29. Al-Nabahani, Nujum al-Muhtadin wa Rujum al-Muʿtadin
30. Al-Nabahani, Jawahir al-Bihar fi Fada'il al-Nabi al-Mukhtar
31. Al-Lahji, Muntaha al-Sul Sharh Wasa'il al-Wusul li al-Nabahani
32. Al-Jamal, Hashiyat al-Hamziyya
33. Al-Haytami, Hashiyat al-Hamziyya
34. Al-Dabbagh, al-Ibriz min Kalam Sayyidi ʿAbd al-ʿAziz
35. ʿAbd Allah al-Ghumari, Dilalat al-Qur'ani al-Mubin ʿala anna al-Nabiyya Afdalu al-ʿAlamin
36. Al-Maliki, Muhammad ﷺ al-Insanu al-Kamil (esp. p. 181-213, 4th ed.)
37. Sirajuddin, Sayyiduna Muhammad ﷺ

Al-Qadi ʿIyad said in al-Shifa', in the section entitled: "On Allah honoring the Prophet ﷺ with some of His own Beautiful Names and describing him with some of His own sublime qualities": Know that Allah has bestowed a mark of honor on many of the Prophets by investing them with some of His names, for instance, when He calls Ishaq and Ismaʿil "knowing" (ʿalim) and "forbearing" (halim), Ibrahim "forbearing", Nuh "thankful" (shakur), ʿIsa and Yahya "devoted" (barr), Musa "noble" (karim) and "strong" (qawi), Yusuf "a knowing guardian" (hafiz, ʿalim), Ayyub "patient" (sabur), and Ismaʿil "truthful to the promise" (sadiq al-waʿd)...
Yet He has preferred our Prophet Muhammad ﷺ may Allah bless him and grant him peace, since He has adorned him with a wealth of His names in His Mighty Book and on the tongue of His Prophets. We have gathered them together after reflecting on the subject and putting our memory to work since we were unable to locate anyone who had compiled more than two names nor anyone who had dealt with it to any great extent before. We have recorded some of these names... There about thirty of them. [He then proceeds to list and explain them. They are: Ahmad, al-Ra'uf, al-Rahim, al-Haqq, al-Nur, al-Shahid, al-Karim, al-ʿAzim, al-Jabbar, al-Khabir, al-Fattah, al-Shakur, al-ʿAlim, al-ʿAllam, al-Awwal, al-Akhir, al-Qawi, al-Sadiq, al-Wali, al-Mawla, ʿAfw, al-Hadi, al-Mu'min, al-Quddus/Muqaddas, al-ʿAziz, al-Bashir, al-Nadhir, Ta Ha, Ya Seen.]

May Allah send blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and all his Companions. Even the Christians and Jews of old knew that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is the best of creation, as evidenced by some of his names and attributes reportedly found in the Bible, such as "Ikleel = Crown [of creation]" and "Parakletos = Spirit of Holiness."

WAllahu aʿlam. Wa SallAllahu wa Sallam ʿala Sayyidina Muhammad.
Wal-Hamdu lillahi Rabbi al-ʿAlamin.


next page





latest update: Sat, 25 Apr 2009


* living Islam – Islamic Tradition *