Consensus concerning some issues related to the
Qur'an by Sh. G. F. Haddad
  1. The veracity of all that is contained in the Qur'an
    (SIHHAT KULLI MA FI AL-QUR'AN)  
  2. The establishment of the text of the Qur'an. (THUBUT AL-QUR'AN)  
  3. The volume of the Qur'an collated by `Uthman ibn `Affan (r).
    (MUSHAF `UTHMAN)  
  4. The order of the verses in the Qur'an. (TARTIB AYAT AL-QUR'AN)  
  5. Tampering with the Qur'an. (TAHRIF AL-QUR'AN)  
  6. Rejecting one letter from the Qur'an (JUHUD HARF MIN AL-QUR'AN)  
  7. Explaining the Qur'an. (SHARH AL-QUR'AN)  
  8. Touching the Qur'an only in a state of ablution. (AL-WUDU' LI MASS AL-MUSHAF)
There is a Consensus in place concerning the following issues related to the Qur'an:

1. The veracity of all that is contained in the Qur'an. (SIHHAT KULLI MA FI AL-QUR'AN)

Anyone who denies one single ruling or account stated in the Qur'an, or who denies something the Qur'an establishes as true, or who establishes as true something which the Qur'an denies, or professes doubt in any of the above: he is an apostate and disbeliever by Consensus.

Sources:

- Ibn Hazm: Maratib al-ijma` fi al`ibadat wa al-mu`amalat wa al-i`tiqadat (The ordinances of Consensus in acts of worship, human transactions, and doctrinal beliefs) (Maktabat al-`qudsi, 1358 H) p. 174-175.

- Nawawi: al-Majmu` sharh al-muhadhdhab (The Compendium: Commentary on Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi's The rarefaction: on the jurisprudence of Imam Shafi`i) (Cairo: Matba`at al-`asima) 2:185.

2. The establishment of the text of the Qur'an. (THUBUT AL-QUR'AN)

There is Consensus that the text of the Qur'an is not established other than by tawatur [= collective transmission from the Prophet that precludes fabrication at every single stage of transmission].

Source:

- Nawawi: Sharh Sahih Muslim (Commentary on Muslim's Collection of sound narrations from the Prophet) (Bulaq ed. 1323 H) 3:213.

3. The volume of the Qur'an collated by `Uthman ibn `Affan (RA). (MUSHAF `UTHMAN)

There is Consensus around the integral contents of `Uthman's volume.

Sources:

- Qadi `Iyad: in Nawawi's Sharh Sahih Muslim 4:109.

- Ibn Hajar: Fath al-Bari bi sharh Sahih al-Bukhari (The victory of the Creator: Commentary on Bukhari's Collection of sound narrations from the Prophet) (Cairo: al-matba`a al-bahiyya, 1348 H) 12:131.

4. The order of the verses in the Qur'an. (TARTIB AYAT AL-QUR'AN)

There is Consensus on the fact that the order of the verses in each of the suras of Qur'an and their successive arrangement in the present order in the mushaf is so decreed by Allah, and on that basis has the Community related it from the Prophet, blessings and peace upon him.

Sources:

- Qadi `Iyad: in Nawawi's Sharh Sahih Muslim 4:56, 5:419-420.

- al-Baqillani: in Ibn Hajar's Fath al-Bari 2:204, 4:32.

- Shawkani: Nayl al-awtar sharh muntaqa al-akhbar min ahadith sayyid al-akhiar (The realization of desires: Commentary on selected reports narrated from the master of the elect ones) (Cairo: al-matba`a al-`uthmaniyya, 1358 H) 2:230.

5. Tampering with the Qur'an. (TAHRIF AL-QUR'AN)

Anyone who adds one letter to the Qur'an other than the narrated recitations which are universally preserved and transmitted, or who subtracts from the Qur'an one letter, or exchanges one of its letters with another; and to whom has been shown the proof that the letter he added or the change he has effected is not of the Qur'an, or that the letter he subtracted is of the Qur'an; and yet he continues deliberately in doing any of the above, in full knowledge that it is contrary to what is done by the Muslims: such a person is an apostate and disbeliever by Consensus.

Sources:

- Nawawi: al-Majmu` sharh al-muhadhdhab 2:185, 3:292; Sharh Sahih Muslim 4:100.

- Ibn Hazm: Maratib al-ijma` p. 174.

- Ibn Hazm: al-Muhalla (The embellished) (ed. Harras, Cairo: Matba`at al-imam) p. 446.

- Shawkani: Nayl al-awtar 2:201.

6. Rejecting one letter from the Qur'an (JUHUD HARF MIN AL-QUR'AN)

There is Consensus that whoever knowingly rejects one letter from the Qur'an upon the inclusion of which there is agreement is an apostate and disbeliever.

Source:

- Nawawi, al-Majmu` 2:185.

7. Explaining the Qur'an. (SHARH AL-QUR'AN)

There is consensus that the explanation of the Qur'an by the ulama is excellent, and that it is forbidden that the unqualified explain, translate, or speak about its meanings.

Source:

- Nawawi, al-Majmu` 2:185.

8. Touching the Qur'an only in a state of ablution. (AL-WUDU' LI MASS AL-MUSHAF)

It is forbidden for one in a state of minor impurity (al-muhdith) to touch or carry the mushaf. These are the words of `Ali, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, and Ibn `Umar. None of the Companions is known to have contradicted them on this. There is Consensus that it is not permissible for the muhdath to touch it even with other than the limbs of ablution (wudu'), such as the chest.

Source:

- Abu al-Tayyib: in Nawawi, al-Majmu` 2:75.

Blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions.

GF Haddad



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