The Sunna as Evidence
The Probativeness of the Sunna
(Hujjiyya al-Sunna)
by Dr. G.F. Haddad ©


[9]
IV. Proofs From The Noble Qur'an For
the Probativeness of the Sunna

(e) Fifth and Last Type of Verses Denoting the Probativeness of the Sunna: Verses indicating that Allah Almighty and Exalted has tasked the Prophet with following and conveying whatever is revealed to him whether in recited (matlu) or non-recited form, forbidding him to neglect or alter or replace any part of it, and assuring him that He had protected him against people who would wish him to alter or cover up something of what was revealed to him.

This type additionally includes verses that indicate that he fulfilled this command, conveyed the message fully and in the most perfect manner, and guided people to the straight path; that Allah Almighty and Exalted has completed and perfected the Religion for the Community by means of the Prophet's conveyance of all that had been revealed to him; and that the Prophet was {of a tremendous nature} (68:4), "nature" or character" here meaning the source of all conscious and deliberate sayings and acts. If he is of the utmost greatness and excellence in Allah's presence, then everything that issues from him is of the same order. If the Prophet were to tell a ruling or put it into practice when such a ruling contradicts Allah's Law, or if he were to command something forbidden or prohibit something permitted, he would not have fulfilled the order to convey, nor be guiding humanity to the straight path, but on the contrary he would be misguiding them and so would not have earned this praise on Allah's part. All this indicates the truthfulness and probativeness of the Sunna and the obligatoriness to adhere to it.

- Allah Almighty and Exalted said: {O Prophet! Keep your duty to Allah and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise. And follow that which is revealed to you from your Lord. Lo! Allah is Aware of what you do} (33:1-2).

- And He said: {Follow that which is inspired in you from your Lord; there is no God save Him; and turn away from the idolaters} (6:106).

- And He said: {And now have We set you (O Muhammad) on a clear road of (Our) commandment; so follow it, and follow not the whims of those who know not} (45:18).

- And He said: {And unto you have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. So judge between them by that which Allah has revealed, and follow not their desires away from the truth which has come unto you. For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced out way. Had Allah willed He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He has given you (He has made you as you are). So vie one with another in good works. Unto Allah you will all return, and He will then inform you of that wherein you differ. So judge between them by that which Allah has revealed, and follow not their desires, but beware of them lest they seduce you from some part of that which Allah has revealed unto you. And if they turn away, then know that Allah's will is to smite them for some sin of theirs. Lo! many of mankind are evil livers} (5:48-49).

- And He said: {O Messenger! Make known that which has been revealed unto you from your Lord, for if you do it not, you will not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect you from mankind. Lo! Allah guides not the disbelieving folk} (5:67).

- And He said: {And thus have We inspired in you (Muhammad) a Spirit of Our command. You knew not what the Scripture was, nor what the Faith. But We have made it a light whereby We guide whom We will of Our bondmen. And lo! you verily do guide unto a right path, the path of Allah, unto Whom belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Do not all things reach Allah at last?} (42:52-53).

- And He said: {But for the grace of Allah upon you (Muhammad), and His mercy, a party of them had resolved to mislead you, but they will mislead only themselves and they will hurt you not at all. Allah revealed unto you the Scripture and wisdom, and taught you that which you knew not. The grace of Allah toward you has been infinite} (4:113).

- And He said: {But nay! I swear by all that you see and all that you see not, that it is indeed the speech of an illustrious messenger. It is not poet's speech-little is it that you believe! Nor diviner's speech-little is it that you remember! It is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. And if he had invented false sayings concerning Us, We assuredly had taken him by the right hand and then severed his life artery, and not one of you could have held Us off from him} (69:38-47).

- And He said: {Say: This is my Way: I call on Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. Glory be to Allah! and I am not of the idolaters} (12:108).

- And He said: {He will enjoin on them that which is right and forbid them that which is wrong. He will make lawful for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul; and he will relieve them of their burden and the fetters that they used to wear} (7:157).

- And He said: {And lo! you summon them indeed unto a right path} (23:73).

- And He said: {Ya Sin. By the wise Qur'an, Lo! you are of those sent on a straight path, a revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful} (36:1-5).

- And He said: {Therefore (O Muhammad) put your trust in Allah, for you stand on the plain Truth} (27:79).

- And He said: {This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as religion AL- ISLAM} (5:3).

- And He said: {Nun. By the pen and that which they write (therewith), you art not, for your Lord's favor unto you, a madman. And lo! yours verily will be a reward unfailing. And lo! you are of a tremendous nature} (68:1-4).

- Allah Almighty and Exalted has also informed humanity that He was going to accept the Prophet's testimony over his Community on the Day of Judgment when He said: {Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that you may be witnesses against mankind. and that the messenger may be a witness against you} (2:143). Allah Almighty and Exalted does not accept testimony except if it comes from someone who is upright both outwardly and inwardly, and from whom nothing issues to violate that condition, whether in word or in deed and whether in the conveyance of the Message or otherwise. This is understood in the light of Allah's complete awareness of all the Prophet's states whether public or hidden.

We conclude this section by citing Allah's saying: {We sent you not save as a mercy for the peoples} (21:107) and { O Prophet! Lo! We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner, and as a summoner unto Allah by His permission, and as a lamp that gives light} (33:45-46). The content of these verses is obvious.

Next: Proofs From The Noble Sunna For the Probativeness of the Sunna

[10] Rec: The Probativeness of the Sunna

  Recapitulation: So far we posted nine posts examining the following material:

[1-2] I. Preliminaries and Guidelines for the Probativeness of the Sunna

[3] II. Proofs for the Probativeness of the Sunna 1. The Prophet's Immune State Dictates That Hadith is Revelation

[4] 2. Allah's Approval of the Companions' Conformity With the Sunna

[5] 3. Proofs From The Noble Qur'an For the Probativeness of the Sunna: a) Verses that indicate the obligatoriness of believing in the Prophet

[6] b) Verses that indicate that the Prophet elucidates the Book and explains its wisdom in a manner that carries authority on Allah's part

[7] c) Verses that indicate the obligatoriness of obeying the Prophet in absolute terms in whatever he orders and whatever he prohibits

[8] d) Verses that indicate the obligatoriness of obeying and imitating the Prophet in absolute terms in whatever he orders and whatever he prohibits as the necessary condition for being loved by Allah

[9] e) Fifth and Last Type of Verses Denoting the Probativeness of the Sunna: Verses indicating that Allah Almighty and Exalted has tasked the Prophet with following and conveying whatever is revealed to him whether in recited (matlu) or non-recited form, forbidding him to neglect or alter or replace any part of it, and assuring him that He had protected him against people who would wish him to alter or cover up something of what was revealed to him.

We now proceed with the fourth type of the "Proofs for the Probativeness of the Sunna," namely, the Noble Sunna itself.

IX. Proofs From the Noble Sunna for the Probativeness of the Sunna

Someone may ask: How can the probativeness of the Sunna be inferred from the Sunna itself, and is this not a kind of logical circle that should be precluded? We reply that, first, the Qur'an itself is not established as probative except through the Prophet's own assertion that it is Allah's -- Exalted is He -- word, that is, on the basis of the mass-transmitted Sunna. Second, whoever considers carefully the proofs given above under the heading of the Prophet's exemption from error,1 realizes that this objection is invalid. In that section we had said that the miracle of the Qur'anic i`jaz dictates that every divinely-sanctioned discourse on his part is by consensus truthful and in conformity with what comes from Allah, therefore it is obligatory to accept and conform with it. This proof had lead us to establish as true a major corollary, namely, that revelation is divided into two kinds:

a) The Book, which is the evidentiary miracle used to worship by means of recitation.

b) Everything else, namely: the hadith qudsi and the Prophetic hadith, whose meaning was revealed but whose wording was chosen by the Prophet .

We can now add a further specification that we can safely exclude from the second category those hadiths in which the Prophet himself states that they are not part of the divine disclosure but are his own opinion, meaning, not in his capacity as a prophet, but as an ordinary human being. Two of the best-known examples of this case are the hadith of the pollination of the datepalm-trees and the hadith of al-Hubab ibn al-Mundar's tactical advice in the battle of Badr. We are not concerned here with that type of hadith, nor with the hadiths that describe the Prophet's noble frame (khalq) and manners (khuluq), but with the hadiths that carry the force of timeless law - and therefore qualify as divine ordinances conveyed by the Prophet - outside the Book. Once one accepts that the Prophet never lies in the conveyance of commands and prohibitions from his Lord, then one can no longer reject the law-probativeness of the latter kind of hadiths provided they are established as authentic through the means elaborated to that effect. Third and last, we may adduce the Prophet's commands - whose probativeness is established by their inclusion in the definition of conveyance (al-khabar al-balaghi) - to establish the probativeness of his acts and tacit approvals and disapprovals. It can be seen from the above stipulations, that we only adduce as proof the kind of law-probative hadith established independently from, and prior to, any other hadith whose probativeness the law-probative hadith may serve to establish. Therefore there is no circular logic, and praise belongs to Allah.

There are many types of proofs in the Sunna for the probativeness of the Sunna. These types can be reduced to three.

(i) The conveyance from the one who never lies that:

1. Allah -- Exalted is He -- has revealed to him the Qur'an and other than it;

2. that whatever legal rulings he has expounded and stipulated are Allah's -- Exalted is He -- own expositions and stipulations, not his;

3. that it is impossible to understand the laws and ordinances of Islam from the Qur'an alone, rather, it is necessary to have recourse to the Sunna;

4. that Sunna-based practice is Qur'an-based;

5. that the Umma in its entirety and without exception has been ordered to accept his words, obey his commands and prohibitions, and follow his Sunna;

6. that whoever obeys him and holds fast to his Sunna obeys Allah -- Exalted is He -- and follows guidance, such being deserving of Paradise and huge reward;

7. that whoever disobeys him and rejects his sayings, preferring to follow his own opinion and whims, has disobeyed Allah, followed misguidance, and perished, such being deserving of hellfire and Allah's curse - may Allah -- Exalted is He -- protect us;

8. that faith and belief remains incomplete until one follows all that he brought;

9. that nothing but truth comes out of his blessed mouth;

10. that the best guidance of all is his guidance;

11. and that anything that he did not himself bring but which people innovate after him according to their whims and caprice, or to serve their lusts, is an innovation in the Religion (bid`a) which is completely rejected.

All the above items presuppose that the Sunna be probative. Following are the narrations that pertain to each item, numbered accordingly.

1. The Prophet said: "Lo! Verily I have been given the Qur'an and something like it. Soon a man will say, leaning on his couch with his stomach full: 'Follow this Qur'an, whatever you find in it to be [declared] permissible then declare it permissible, and whatever you find in it to be [declared] prohibited then declare it prohibited.' Verily whatever Allah's Messenger has declared prohibited is just as what Allah -- Exalted is He -- has declared prohibited. Lo! The meat of the domestic ass is prohibited to you. So is the meat of fanged beasts of prey. So is a find belonging to the beneficiary of a treaty unless its owner does not want it. If one or more people arrive among some people the latter must receive them hospitably; if they do not, they must give them the amount equivalent to their hospitality."2

Another narration of the above gives us a glimpse at the "circumstances of utterance" (asbab al-wurud) for this foundational hadith:

Al-`Irbad ibn Sariya said: "We alighted in Khaybar with the Prophet with whoever was with him among his Companions. The leader of Khaybar was a rebellious, contemptible man. He came to the Prophet and said to him: 'O Muhammad! Do you all have total freedom to slaughter our donkeys, eat our crops, and beat our womenfolk?' Whereupon the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- became angry and said: 'O Ibn `Awf, get on your horse and call out: Lo! Verily Paradise is forbidden except to a believer, then tell them to gather for the prayer.' They gathered and the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- prayed with them. Afterwards he said: 'Does any of you think, leaning back on his couch, perhaps, that Allah prohibited nothing except what is in this Qur'an? Lo! Verily, I swear by Allah that I have exhorted and commanded and forbidden you things to the amount of the Qur'an or more! And I have said that Allah -- Exalted is He -- did not make it permissible for you to enter the houses of the People of the Book except with their permission, nor beat their womenfolk, nor eat their crops if they give you what they are due to give.'"3

Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazi (d. 294) said: "Allah revealed two types of revelation, naming one Qur'an and the other hikma, differentiating between them, both being from Him, and the hikma is whatever the Messenger instituted (sanna) that is not mentioned in the Book. Otherwise it would be as if He said "Allah reveals unto you the Scripture and the Scripture" which is far-fetched. ... No-one denies this except one who is dim-witted."4

2. When prices soared in Madina it was said to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him --: "O Messenger of Allah, set the market prices for us." He replied: "Allah -- Exalted is He -- will not ask me of any Sunna which I originated (ahdathtu) among you without His commanding me to do so. But ask Allah for His favor."5

There are several other versions of the above narration, all indicating that the Prophet does not proceed to ordain anything in daily practice except with divine permission. Among them:

They said: "O Messenger of Allah! set the market prices for us." He replied: "Allah is He Who sets the market prices (al-Musa``ir), the Straitener (al-Qabid), the Expander (al-Basit), and the Bestower of sustenance (al-Raziq). Verily I hope to find my Lord without any of you complaining that I have wronged him either with regard to someone's death or with regard to property."6

The Prophet also said, on the day of the campaign of Tabuk: "O people! Verily I do not command you anything except what Allah -- Exalted is He -- has commanded you, and I do not prohibit upon you anything except what Allah -- Exalted is He -- has prohibited upon you. Therefore be graceful in your requests from Him. By the One in Whose hand is Abu al-Qasim's life, the sustenance of each one of you shall surely come to him just as his term of life shall surely come to pass. Therefore, if you find yourself in difficulty because of some need, ask for your sustenance through obedience to Allah -- Exalted is He."7

cont.

NOTES

1See sec. II.1 in post [3].

2Narrated from al-Miqdam ibn Ma`dikarb with sound chains by Abu Dawud and Ahmad; also, in part, by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib), Ibn Majah, and al-Darimi. All but the latter also narrated it in part from Abu Nafi` and al-Tirmidhi declared it hasan sahih.

3Narrated from al-`Irbad ibn Sariya by Abu Dawud in his Sunan, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (9:204 #18493) and Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazi at the very end of his book al-Sunna (p. 111-112 #405), all with a fair chain according to Ma`ruf and al-Arna'ut's assessment of the narrators in al-Tahrir, while Salim ibn Ahmad al-Salafi in al-Sunna declared the chain good (jayyid) and al-Albani declared the hadith weak! The phrase between brackets is in al-Marwazi only.

4In al-Sunna (p. 110 #401).

5Narrated from Talha ibn Nudayla by al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal. Ibn Hajar cited its different chains in al-Isaba (3:535).

6Narrated from Anas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih), Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Darimi, and Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (5:245) all with sound chains as stated by Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (3:14), cf. Shaykh Husayn Asad also. Also narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by Ahmad, and from Abu Hurayra by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, both with fair chains as stated by Ibn Hajar. The latter mentioned two other chains for this hadith, one from `Ali and one from Ibn `Abbas. This is an example of the narrations which Ibn al-Jawzi incorrectly included in his Mawdu`at.

7Narrated from al-Hasan ibn `Ali by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (3:83) with a chain containing `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Uthman al-Hatibi whom Abu Hatim declared weak as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (4:71-72), however, the contents of the hadith itself are confirmed by other evidence and Abu Hatim's lone discreditation does not suffice, as he is known for his severity, and Allah knows best.

[11] The Probativeness of the Sunna

  4. PROOFS FROM THE NOBLE SUNNA FOR THE PROBATIVENESS OF THE SUNNA cont'd

3. It is impossible to understand the laws and ordinances of Islam from the Qur'an alone, rather, it is necessary to have recourse to the Sunna

The Prophet said: "Whoever speaks about the Qur'an without knowledge, let him take from now his seat in the Fire."1

Another version states: "Whoever is asked about knowledge and conceals it shall come on the Day of Resurrection wearing a bridle of fire, and whoever says something about the Qur'an without knowledge, shall come on the Day of Resurrection wearing a bridle of fire."2

The Prophet also said: "Beware of narrating something about me except what you know for sure, for whoever deliberately lies about me, let him take from now his seat in the Fire; and whoever says something about the Qur'an on the basis of his own opinion, let him take from now his seat in the Fire."3

Another version has: "Whoever says something about the Qur'an on the basis of his own opinion and happens to be correct, he is nevertheless wrong."4 Meaning: in relation to the ruling on the conditions necessary for explaining Allah's book.5

The Prophet said: "What I most fear for my Community is three things: the scholar's lapse, the hypocrite who disputes about the Qur'an, and [the riches of] the world that shall be opened up for you."6

Another version states: "What I most fear for my Community is the silver-tongued hypocrite."7

4. Sunna-based practice is Qur'an-based

The Prophet said: "Faithful responsibility (al-amana) alighted at the root of men's hearts. Then the Qur'an alighted, whereupon they learnt from the Qur'an and they learnt from the Sunna."8

5. The Umma in its entirety and without exception has been ordered to accept his words, obey his commands and prohibitions, and follow his Sunna

The Prophet said: "Whoever obeys me certainly obeys Allah. Whoever disobeys me certainly disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys my leader (amiri), certainly obeys me. Whoever disobeys my leader, certainly disobeys me."9

Another version states: "Do you not know that whoever obeys me certainly obeys Allah, and part of obedience to Allah is obedience to me?" They said: "Yes! We bear witness to this." The Prophet replied: "Then know that part of obedience to me is that you obey your leaders (umara')." One version has: "Your imams."10

6. Whoever obeys him and holds fast to his Sunna obeys Allah (swt) and follows guidance, such being deserving of Paradise and huge reward

The Prophet said: "All of my Community shall enter Paradise except those who refuse." They said: "O Messenger of Allah! Who could refuse?" He replied: "Whoever obeys me enters Paradise and whoever disobeys me has refused."11

He also said: "Verily this Qur'an is difficult and felt as a burden to anyone that hates it, but it is made easy to anyone that follows it. Verily my sayings are difficult and felt as a burden to anyone that hates them, but they are made easy to anyone that follows them. Whoever hears my saying and preserves it, putting it into practice, shall come forth together with the Qur'an on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever dismisses my sayings dismisses the Qur'an, and whoever dismisses the Qur'an has lost this world and the next."12

He also said: "Whoever eats wholesome food, puts a Sunna into practice, and saves people his wrongdoings, shall certainly enter Paradise." They said: "O Messenger of Allah, today this is found in abundance among people." He replied: "It shall be found in the centuries after me."13

He also said: "Whoever gives life to one of my Sunnas which was eliminated after my time will receive the reward of all those who practice it without their reward being diminished. And whoever innovates an innovation of misguidance that pleases not Allah nor His Prophet,14 then upon his head rests the sin of whoever puts it into practice without their sins being diminished."15 It was said that the meaning of "one of my Sunnas" here is one of the rulings of the Law which the Prophet brought concerning the obligations of prayer, zakat, etc.16

He also said: "Whoever gives life to my Sunna certainly loves me: and whoever loves me is with me in Paradise."17

He also said: "The keeper of my Sunna at the time my Community has lapsed into corruption will receive the reward of a hundred martyrs."18

He also said: "Islam began as a stranger and shall again be considered a stranger. Therefore, blessings and glad tidings to the strangers! those who set aright what people have corrupted of my Sunna after me."19

cont'd

NOTES

1Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih), Ahmad with two chains, al-Nasa'i in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:30), Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf (6:136), al-Quda`i in Musnad al-Shihab (1:327), and al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:423).

2Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (4:458) with a weak chain according to Shaykh Husayn Asad, however, al-Haythami declared all its narrators trustworthy in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:163).

3Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Ahmad, al-Nasa'i in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:31), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:423), .

4Narrated with weak chains from Jundub ibn `Abd Allah by al-Tirmidhi (gharib), Abu Dawud, al-Nasa'i in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:31 #8026), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (3:90) and Mafarid (p. 42), al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (2:163), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:423) and others. Al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn `Adi, and others mentioned that the chain of this hadith had been questioned by some of the imams of hadith. However, its contents was heeded by the Companions and Successors as shown by the numerous narrations to that effect adduced by Ibn Kathir at the beginning of his Tafsir (1:6). Cf. al-Qurtubi, Tafsir (1:32).

5As stated in `Awn al-Ma`bud in commentary of this hadith.

6Narrated from Mu`adh by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (20:138) and Tammam al-Razi in al-Fawa'id (2:219). Something similar is narrated by al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (7:281) and al-Madkhal (p. 443) and Ibn al-A`rabi in al-Zuhd (p. 49) with a weak chain from Ibn `Umar as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (7:203).

7Narrated from `Umar ibn al-Khattab and `Imran ibn Husayn by Ahmad in his Musnad, Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (1:282), al-Bazzar in his Musnad (1:434), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:284), and al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (18:237) with a fair chain as stated by al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtara (1:344) and as indicated by al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 1:75) and al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:187).

8Narrated as part of a longer hadith from Hudhayfa by Bukhari in two places, Muslim, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih), Ibn Majah, and Ahmad.

9Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari, Muslim, al-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Ibn Majah. The latter has the words "the imam" instead of "the amir."

10Narrated from Ibn `Umar by Ahmad with a sound chain, Abu Ya`la, and al-Tabarani. Cf. Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:91): "This hadith shows the obligatoriness of obeying those who govern, on condition tha they do not command disobedience to Allah."

11Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari and Ahmad.

12Narrated from al-Hakam ibn `Umayr al-Thumali by al-Khatib in al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (1983 ed. 2:189), al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir (18:17), Abu Nu`aym, Abu al-Shaykh, and al-Daylami.

13Narrated with weak chains from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by al-Tirmidhi (gharib), al-Tabarani in al-Awsat, al-Hakim (1990 ed. 4:117) who declared it sahih, al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman, (5:54), al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunna (1:54), and others. All their chains contain Abu Bishr, who is unknown.

14Man ibtada`a bid`ata dalalatin la turdillaha wa rasulah.

15A sound hadith narrated from `Amr ibn `Awf ibn Zayd al-Muzani by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Ibn Majah in his Sunan, `Abd ibn Humayd in his Musnad (p. 120), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (1:233), al-Bayhaqi in al-I`tiqad (p. 231), and Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhid (24:328). The latter also narrates it from Jarir ibn `Abd Allah.

16Al-Sindi in his commentary on Ibn Majah's Sunan, Muqaddima.

17Narrated from Anas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) as part of a longer hadith, al-Tabarani in al-Awsat, Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazi in Ta`zim Qadr al-Salat (2:661), and al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usul al-I`tiqad (1:53). Al-Munawi declared al-Tirmidhi's chain very weak in Fayd al-Qadir but said that the hadith itself was fair (hasan) due to its numerous corroborating narrations.

18Narrated by al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1:87=1997 ed. 1:41) and al-Hakim. Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (2:327) indicated that the narration was fair (hasan). Al-Mundhiri said: "Al-Bayhaqi narrated it through al-Hasan ibn Qutayba, and al-Tabarani from Ibn Hurayra with an unexceptionable chain, except that he said 'the reward of one martyr.'"

19Narrated from `Amr ibn `Awf ibn Zayd by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih), al-Quda`i in Musnad al-Shihab (2:138), al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (17:16), Abu Nu`aym in Hilya al-Awliya' (1985 ed. 2:10), and al-Khatib in al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (1983 ed. 1:112). The hadith is also narrated, without mention of the Sunna: from Abu Hurayra and Ibn `Umar by Muslim; from Abu Hurayra, Anas, and Ibn Mas`ud by Ibn Majah; from Ibn Mas`ud by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih gharib) and al-Darimi; and from Ibn Mas`ud and `Abd al-Rahman ibn Sanna by Ahmad. Some versions continue thus: They asked: "Who are the strangers?" The Prophet MHMD replied: "Those far away from their families and countrymen." One version in Muslim and Ahmad states: "Islam shall coil back between the Two Mosques the way a snake coils back into its hole."

 

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