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Satan (may he be thrown out forever!)

according to

the teachings of Islam

by Imam Ahmed Vālsan (rh)

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Man should not always blame Satan when he himself is responsible for his actions.

There is almost nothing good that man can expect from Satan. After man was cast out of paradise, Satan's sole purpose in life became to destroy man in every possible way.

Dealing with such a subject may seem strange to some, but it is certainly justified for two different reasons.

a.) First, because in this modern world Satan succeeds most with two kinds of people:
- those who deny his existence (then Satan can act unnoticed) and
- those who focus so much on his importance that they consider him a counterweight to God with almost equal power. Of course, both views are wrong, as will be shown in this article.

b.) But there is another reason to reflect on Satan's function and role because there are different ways of looking at the meaning of spiritual knowledge. One of them is to study the four main areas on which this spiritual knowledge rests according to Islamic esotericism.

This spiritual knowledge covers four domains:

1 - God : What one should know about Him (as Divinity) and what one cannot know (God as essence or being).

2 - The world : The universe is an open book, God's signs or theophanies (Self-Disclosures).

3 - The soul : Its eternal side but also the lack and cunning of the self.

4 - Satan: His role and function.

Regarding the familiar concept of jihad in Islamic esotericism, what is meant is the spiritual struggle waged against Satan’s ploys and seductive attempts to hinder the one who strives for knowledge of God and His good pleasure.

You know that when you reach God's pleasure, all doors are opened, all veils fall and Reality is shown as it has always been.

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Peace and Mercy be upon him - summed up the whole problem when he said in a request he made to God.
{ "I take refuge in Your pleasure against Your anger and I take refuge in You against You!" }

اللَّهُمَّ أَعُوذُ بِرِضَاكَ مِنْ سَخَطِكَ وَبِمُعَافَاتِكَ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِكَ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْكَ لاَ أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ

Table of Contents

I - Terminology
II - Satan, a sworn Enemy
III - Is there anyone who is protected from him?
IV - Is Satan impotent or does he possess any power?
V - Fall or Descent : Adam, Eve, Satan ?
VI - Satan's request after his refusal
VII - Satan's Message and Work
VIII - How to respond to Satan's cunning and devices?
IX - Satan's Difficult Task and Hopeless Struggle
X - To what extent is Satan responsible?
XI - Satan's Burden on Judgment Day
XII - Satan's Punishment in Hell
XIII - Satan's Hopes for God's Mercy
XIV - The Fate of Satan in the Future

I - Terminology

In the Koran, the Devil has different names. Nine times he is called Iblīs and more than fifty times al-Shaitān. Iblīs refers to him being forgotten by God's grace and al-Shaitān to him being separated from God's presence. You say in Arabic: bi'r shatūn when you refer to a very deep well whose bottom cannot be estimated.

Another name is according to a commentary by al-Hassan, the grandson of the Prophet ﷺ peace be upon him - al-Jibt. He said that "al-Jibt is Satan." (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 5, 60). In general al-jibt means everything that is worshiped apart from or instead of God. It also denotes sorcery or witchcraft in other contexts.

Al-Tāghūt usually refers to the idols but can also denote the demons or satans (shayātīn). It has a plural form: tawāghīt.
Regarding the name al-Gharūr, which is one of the the main characteristics of Satan, means "the seducer" which comes from the verb gharra, yaghurru, ghurūran : i.e. to deceive, mislead.
An early commentator on the Qur'an, Mujahid, has said that "the seducer is Satan" (al-Gharūr: al-Shaitān). (Sahih al-Bukhari). The Qur'an warns us when God says:

{ وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ }

{ Let not the chief Deceiver deceive you about Allah.} (Sura Sura Loqman 31, verse 33).
One should also quote another name that refers to Satan: al-Waswās al-Khannās: The Whisperer but recoils as soon as God's name is invoked (last chapter of the Qur'an, verse 4).

II - Satan, a sworn enemy

There is almost nothing good that man can expect from Satan. After man was cast out of paradise, Satan's sole purpose in life became to destroy him in every possible way. From the beginning God has warned us of his enmity:

{ "Satan is surely your enemy; so treat him as an enemy! He only calls to himself his followers to become denizens of hellfire." } (Sura 35, 6)

The expression "to worship Satan" should not only be understood as a special cult dedicated to him (there are few who do), but in a more general sense, namely to follow in Satan's footsteps (there are, however, many who follow in his footsteps either it is deliberate or being unaware). This meaning can be attributed to God's warning when He says:

{ "Have I not charged you, you children of Adam, not to worship Satan? He is certainly a declared enemy to you." } (Sura 36, 60).

III - Is there anyone who is protected from him?

One may wonder if there is nothing within Islam that reminds us of the concept of original sin. At first glance, one knows that everyone is responsible for one's own actions and no one else. Islam affirms that all human beings are born pure according to the original nature (al-fitra ) then it is the demons that mislead a number of them to associate anyone with God.

{ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا }

However, God says in the Qur'an that few people escape Satan's attack: { And were it not for God's favor and mercy towards you, you would have followed Satan save a few (of you). } (Sura 4, 83).

{ Had it not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy unto you, not one of you would ever have grown pure. } Sura 24-21

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Peace and mercy be upon him - has declared that none of us has come to earth without having a demon attached to him: "There is not one of you who has not been forcibly taken by one of the Satans." (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 1, 257).
"The devil is certainly usually present, and he also participates in all that you undertake and in all your affairs." (Sahih Muslim, Ashribah, 135).

"Man is susceptible (predisposed, inclined) to receive promptings from both Satan and the Angel." (Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Tafsīr p.3,25).

In this way, man is pressured by Satan and his adherents to sin right from the beginning.

But there are exceptions, Jesus and his mother were already protected from Satan from the start. The Qur'an mentions the prayer of the mother of Mary - peace be upon her - which reads as follows:

{ وَإِنِّي سَمَّيْتُهَا مَرْيَمَ وَإِنِّي أُعِيذُهَا بِكَ وَذُرِّيَّتَهَا مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ }

{ And I have called her Mary, and I commend her and her offspring to You for protection against the stoned Satan } (Sura 3, 36)

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ - God's grace and peace be upon him - himself had a demon attached to him but it had to submit to God (it became muslim) so that it only called for positive things.
This leads us to mention various inspirations or thoughts to which a person in general and a prophet in particular are exposed. According to Islamic esotericism, there are four types of inspiration (al-khawātir: i.e. sudden thoughts that come to the heart without intention).

1 - al-khātir al-rabbāni : a pure divine inspiration in its origin,

2 - al-khātir al-malaki: an angelic intuition,

3 - al-khātir al-nafsāni: a psychic input, the input of the self,

4 - al-khātir al-Shaitāni: a satanic insinuation that always and only refers to the forbidden (to do or not to do).

As for the prophets, their thoughts and inspirations are of the first three kinds. Shaikh Muhyiddīn ibn al-Arabi says that Satan cannot attack their hearts. The hearts of the prophets are thus protected from the satanic thoughts. This is also the case for a number of saints who have received a similar grace.

It is also well known according to the Prophet's statements that Satan cannot take a prophet's form or image, either in a waking state or in a dream (cf. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 1, 26 1). This is a kind of security for the one who has received this favor, to rely with all certainty on such a vision or dream.

Also important to mention is that some people are left alone by Satan either because he fears them or because he cannot influence them. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ peace be upon him - said about Omar ibn al-Khattāb (the later second Caliph): "Satan is truly afraid of you, Omar!" peace be upon him (Sunan al-Tirmidhī, Manāqib, 17) that is, he always chose a different path when he saw Omar.

In another long hadith describing a meeting that took place between Prophet Muhammad ﷺ peace be upon him - and Iblīs (Satan), the latter was asked by the Prophet: "Who are the acquitted or the freed (al-mukhlasūna) which you, Satan, leave in peace?" Satan replied: O Muhammad, do you not know that whoever loves silver and gold (the money) is not mukhlas (acquitted, freed)? But if I see a person who does not harbor desire for silver and gold, who also does not love commendation and word of praise, and who does not care about gossip and blame, then I know that such a person is acquitted by God and then I leave him alone."

IV - Is Satan impotent or does he possess any power?

{ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا }

The Qur'an clearly states that Satan's power is weak { Certainly Satan's devices are weak. } (Sura 4, 76).

When the angels asked in a long hadith what was the strongest in God's creation, God mentioned the mountains, then the fire, then the water, then the air, and then that man who gives alms without "the right hand knowing what the left is doing".
Satan is created from fire and man from clay, but at the same time also from liquid which constitutes the predominant element (80%) of his body. As is well known, water extinguishes fire, therefore Satan is considered to have been weak from the beginning due to the difference in the composition of the elements. (cf. Fut.1, 133).

Satan was allowed by God's command to meet Muhammad ﷺ peace be upon him - to tell him how he deceives and misleads the people. He said :
"O Muhammad! I have no power to mislead, but I am only a whisperer and an embellisher. If indeed I had the power to mislead, I would not have left a single soul on earth who says:    


"No deity but God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God", nor any praying or fasting man. Nor do you, Muhammad, possess any power to guide whom you will. You are but a messenger, an intermediary. Had you any power to guide, you would not have left any godless man on earth! You are only God's proof and argument before His creation and I am really only a tool and a contributing cause to the misfortune that God has predestined a persom." (cf. Fut. 1, 334)

God confirms Satan's claim, in the Qur'an He says:
{ You (Muhammad) do indeed not guide whom you please, but God guides whom He wills; indeed, He knows well those who are set on the right path. } (Cor.28, 56).

This means that it is God alone who rules everything because there is no one else but Him in existence.

A true story shows how weak and almost ignorant Satan can be.
A famous saint, Hassan al-Basri, saw the devil in his dream.
He asked him: "How are you really?
Then Satan answered: Not good, you should know!
What do you mean? asked Hassan al-Basri.
Satan answered: "It is because before it was I who taught people all kind of sins and crimes, tricks and fakes, but now I'm the one who has to learn from them and can barely keep up!
What would he say in our day. However, the Qur'an speaks of what power the Devil can invoke.

{ He (Satan) certainly has no power over those who believe and trust in their Lord. His power extends only to those who take him as protectors and who associate someone with God. } (Sura 16, 98-100).

Therefore, God urges the Muslims not to fear Satan and his followers and says:

{ Those who believe, fight for God's cause; and those who are godless or infidels, fight for the Devil's cause; therefore fight against Satan's followers! Satan's devices are certainly weak. } (Sura 4, 76).

If Satan has no significant power, however he is still considered dangerous to man.

{ You who believe, do not follow Satan's path, for whoever follows Satan's path, he invites to commit infamy and indecency. And were it not for God's favor and mercy towards you, none of you would ever be acquitted*, but God acquits whom He will; yes, God is All-Hearing, All-Knowing } (Sura 24, 21) * (acquitted: (zky ), i.e. none of you would be able to purify yourself.)

There are, according to the Devil's account, three ominous sins which are considered the greatest. When asked who they were, he replied:

- Greed
- Lust for power
- Pride

During the same meeting with the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Peace and Mercy be upon him - the Devil warned about his role and function and said: "O Muhammad! Do you really brag about your community, when I am about to throw one sixth[1] of it out of Islam?"

As they usually say in all the languages of the world: "One should never belittle or underestimate one's enemy".

V - Fall or Descent : Adam, Eve, Satan?

What seems very strange to a Muslim is the general misconception that prevails among many Christians and Jews about the personality and function of Adam and Eve. One talks about the "fall" in a way that from the Islamic point of view and doctrine is considered degrading and untrue. According to the Qur'an, the term "fall" with its negative meaning applies only to Satan.

Sheikh al-Akbar explains that each of Adam, Eve and Satan has a special message. Adam was asked not to approach the tree which implied some knowledge of duality. This interpretation is found in the very word shajarah (tree) which is derived from the word shijār which means dispute, discord, weary and conflict, thus knowledge of good and evil. But the prohibition that Adam received was a necessary trial whose outcome was well known and intended by God.

God had said before Adam was given life: { I intend to set up a representative on earth } (Sura 2, 28). - That is, eating (from the tree in paradise) led to the divine selection. Thus, according to Sheikh al-Akbar, Adam's descent becomes an honorable descent (hubūt tashrīf) but also another great trial. It should be remembered that the function of the Caliphate (khilāfah) implies dispute and conflict, the term comes from khilāf which means difference of opinion and discord.

Eve's descent also becomes a descent of honor and trial in that her function as mother of children becomes part of the cause of the arrival on earth of all prophets and saints (hubūt li-n-nasl).

Even Satan's fall as a result of God's wrath has a function, albeit a negative one, (hubūt li-l-ghiwāyah) that is, to mislead the children of Adam through his promptings and allusions.

In the Koran, Satan is condemned with a respite granted, but if Adam is blamed, it is temporarily in order to be quickly forgiven and clothed with the office of Caliphate on earth: So Adam disobeyed his Lord and was brought to descend. But then His Lord chose him again, took pity on him (was merciful with him) and guided him. (Sura 20, 122)

According to a hadith, Adam is the first prophet (nabī). As you understand, you are far from the distorted view that many have about Adam and Eve - Peace be with both of them.

But as far as the Devil is concerned, he has committed three grave sins and errors:
1. Refusal (to fall down before Adam)
2. Reasoning by analogy (by believing that fire is better than clay)
3. Pride

{ قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ‏ قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ }

{ (Allah) said: "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" He said: "I am better than he: You did create me from fire, and him from clay."
He (Allah) said: "Get you down from this: it is not for you to be arrogant here: get out, for you are of the meanest (of creatures)." }
(Sura 7, 12-13).

VI - Satan's request after his refusal

The request that Satan addresses to God is based on the fact that he knew that according to man's nature he would be susceptible to all kinds of 'inspiration' or arousal. The devil said: { By Your omnipotence! I will surely bring them all down. } (Sura 38,82)

For this purpose he asked for respite as it is related in the Qur'an:

{ He said: Reprieve me till the day when they are raised (from the dead). (Allah) said: "Be thou among those who have respite." (Satan) said, "Because You have put me in error, I will surely sit in wait for them on Your straight path. } (Sura 7, 14-16)

God heard his supplication and Satan was granted respite until the Day of Judgment, and God urged him to complete his mission and said: { Go your way! ...seduce ... assault ... gain complicity ... and give them promises! } (see Sura 17, 64)

All these are divine commands. But had they originally come from God, Satan would not have fallen out of favor and become unhappy. So it was the Devil himself who, on his own initiative, requested to do everything he could to the people, as a result of which he became miserable.

{ قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوْفُورًا }

At the same time, you see that God indirectly confirms Satan's message when He says: { Go, for whoever of them follows you, indeed Hell will be the recompense of you - an ample recompense.} (see Sura 17, 63)

Then God clarified what this message or mission meant and said: { And lead whomever you can among them with your voice and attack them with your horsemen and your footmen, get a share of their wealth and children and make promises to them! } (see Sura 17, 64)

VII - Satan's Message and Work

Aside from leading people to commit crimes and sins, Satan's work can be summarized as follows:

1- Beautify people's bad actions and speech :
That is, everything that is normally considered negative, false or ugly and condemned by God, becomes beautified, liked and highly valued (cf. Fut. IV, 400).

{ Thus We have given every prophet an enemy, namely Satans among men and jinn, those who for each other concocted false speech (deceitful, empty, 'hollow' speech) to mislead each other with. } (Cor.6, 112) Here, { made up pretentious word } means that the bad actions are beautified in the eyes of those who commit them and those who consent to such actions.

2 - Provoking and starting polemics :

{ وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَانٍ مَّرِيدٍ }

{ Among men there is one who disputes about God in his ignorance and obeys every rebellious satan. } (Sura 22, 3).

3 - Promoting lies and slander and supporting liars:
It is also now called disinformation.
{ Shall I tell you, upon whom the Satans strike? They strike every sinful perverter. } (Sura 26, 221-222).

4 - Disfigure God's creatures :
{ And I will invite them to mutilate God's creatures } (Sura 21, 19)

5 - Satan's work can even more be summarized in two important stages:
René Guénon has characterized Satan's work in our times with two features: the first is called deviation and the second is subversion. The first stage leads to pure materialism and is called Luciferianism. The second stage leads to a backward pseudo-spirituality called Satanism. (cf. René Guénon)

VIII - How to respond to Satan's cunning and devices?

God has made Satan, the enemy and his followers invisible to people. But man, through the Shariah (God's revealed law), has received in his heart some signs with which he can see through or recognize the Devil's wiles and thus protect himself from his promptings and allusions.

However, man is not alone in fighting the Devil. He is helped by the angel who fights against Satan's influence. (Fut. III, 93)

It is also known that, according to the Prophet ﷺ: "The heart of man is between the two fingers of the Allmerciful." That is, God turns and twists how He wishes. The heart is called in Arabic qalb from a root word QLB meaning turn upside down qallaba. The heart is thus constantly receptive to God's works and trials.
Consequently, if God sways man's heart, he will try to struggle against giving in to the negative prompting. Then the believer is rewarded as a fighter for God's cause (ajr mujāhid).

But if, despite his valiant resistance, man still commits a sin, repents and does penance afterwards, and realizes in truth that this sin is the result of Satan's inspiration, he is rewarded as a martyr (ajr shahīd). Such was the case with Moses - peace be upon him - as it is told in the Qur'an:

{ Moses struck him with his fist and killed him (an Egyptian). Then he said: "This is the work of Satan; surely he is a manifest enemy and seducer". He further said: "Lord, I have indeed wronged myself, forgive me! And He forgave him, He is indeed the Forgiving, the Merciful." } (Sura 28, 15-16).

But as Sheikh Muhyi d-Dīn explains, he who is perceived as a martyr is considered alive and not dead. There is no better life than the life of the heart with God, in any action. This means that the one who has committed a sin but repents deeply is considered a living person (shahīd) and it means that his action or deed is also alive and even asks for forgiveness for the conscious and repentant offender until the Day of Judgment!

The consequence is the following: one sees the Devil striving to corrupt the believers but in reality he multiplies the good for them without noticing it! It is Satan's zeal that blinds him. The consequences of sin also turn against Satan himself. All this is the result of God's cunning against Satan and constant regard for the faithful. (cf. Fut. 1, 362)

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Peace and Mercy be upon him - described the true believer by saying: "The believer is the one who rejoices in his good deeds and grieves over the bad ones." This is to counteract Satan's constant attempts to beautify all the ugly or bad actions in people's hearts.

This means that a believer does not turn an action condemned by God into a permitted one, but he knows and is aware of what pleases God and what is negative.

This is clearly seen in the fact that God counters Satan's attacks and attacks by always preparing a pardon for the tested believer. This in two main ways.
Either the believer is preserved from committing a crime or a sin, or protected in this world and/ afterwards in the next life from its negative consequences if he has nevertheless succumbed to the temptation. (cf. Fut. III, 71-72).

It should be remembered that Satan's purpose is not the sin or crime itself, but that the believer should become accustomed to crime and sin so that he loses his faith for good!

There is in Islam a category of saints called al-Nuqabā'. Among other things, they have received as divine gifts knowledge of all the revealed laws of God and a charisma* to be able to see through the innermost parts of souls and their tricks, cunnings and deceptions. As for Satan, he is completely exposed before their eyes. They know about him what he doesn't know about himself! (cf. Fut. II, 7). * (charisma: strong personal radiance, from Greek. gift of grace, favor)

In order to counteract the hostilities of Satan, the believer must arm himself:

1 - Avoid wrath (in everything that has nothing to do with God's cause and right) Wrath comes from Satan and the Devil, is of fire created. What is condemned here is the anger that arises from the self, for the self's sake. (hadith related by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal vol. 4, 225)

2 - Calling God's Name diligently
"A believer can only guard himself against the Devil by calling God diligently." said the Prophet ﷺ peace be upon him.

IX - Satan's Hard Task and Hopeless Struggle

{ الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ }

The most difficult verse in the Qur'an for Iblīs was when God said: { Satan threatens you with poverty and invites you to commit iniquity, but God promises you forgiveness and favor; indeed, God is All-Powerful and All-Knowing. } (Sura 2, 268).

According to Islam, man is forgiven for his evil thoughts as long as he does not carry them out. However, if she has taken action, i.e. used her limbs for what is called "infamy" fahshā in the Qur'an, the situation is not hopeless. When a believer has committed a sin under Satan's influence, he is met with God's forgiveness, and when he has been threatened by Satan with poverty, God brings abundant resources out of His grace or favor* (fadl).
* Favor: (expression of) benevolence, here: from God

In light of this, this verse became the most difficult that Satan had to hear in his entire existence! This is because he was told that his whole misleading work would be wasted every time he would go after the believers.

The devil then changed tactics and focused his efforts on misleading the believers and trying to make them believe or associate someone or something with the worship of God, shirk, because he believed that the shirk would never be forgiven. God said : { God certainly does not forgive that one gives Him a partner (yushraku bi-Hi), but He does forgive whom He wills everything but this. } (Cor.4, 48 and 116).

On the other hand, the most pleasing verse revealed to the Prophet ﷺ peace be upon him was the following:

{ قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ }

{ Say: My servants who have been frivolous against yourselves, do not despair of God's mercy, God surely forgives sins completely; He is Forgiving, Merciful. } (Sura 39, 53)

Consequently, even the shirk is covered by God's mercy.

X - To what extent is Satan responsible?

When everything is settled after the Day of Judgment, Satan rightly says to those who have ended up with him in Hell:

{ And Satan says, when the matter is settled: 'God has certainly given you a true promise, and I have also given you promises, but I have failed/ betrayed you, for I had no other power over you than to call/ invite you, and you obeyed/ responded to me.
Blame me not, then, but blame yourselves/ reproach your own souls! I cannot help you, and you cannot help me; I have certainly denied and distanced myself from that (you formerly did when) you gave me a place at God's side/ I reject your former act in associating me with Allah. Yes, those who seek injustice have a painful punishment to await. }
(Sura 14, 22).

In the light of the aforementioned true statement, man should not always blame Satan when he himself is actually responsible for his actions. A hadith says: "When someone curses Satan, he replies: May God curse the one who disobeys Him the most!"


Something similar is said in Judaism (Ben Sira 21, 27):


 "The fool who curses Satan is actually cursing himself!"*
* Don't forget that we Muslims believe in the Holy Scriptures, i.e. in what was not tampered with.

But God also does not absolve Satan of responsibility, but calls him a kāfir (ie unbelieving and ungrateful, but here: not 'godless' ). This for two reasons: his disobedience and his ignorance. Yes, the most disobedient or rebellious against God of all creatures is Satan without a doubt.
Firstly, Satan is ignorant when he considers himself better and greater than Adam, because he regards the element of fire as much better than clay. In that case, one could tell him that light surpasses fire! It is therefore not possible to compare fire with the light of the angels!

Secondly, Satan disobeyed when he was told to fall down before Adam. But he refused, showing haughtiness because of the above reason. Satan combines two qualities (disobedience and ignorance) for these reasons God has branded him as kāfir. (cf. Fut. II, 96).

The devil has tried to blame God for his misfortune. He said to God: "You have commanded me to do something that You did not want to happen. If You really wanted me to fall down before Adam, I would have done it!" But God answered him: "When did you learn that I really did not want you to fall down before Adam? Was it after your refusal or before?". Satan replied: "It was after I had refused." Then God said: "Therefore I blame you!" Satan was not absolved of responsibility and ignorance was also punished.

AI-Sheikh al-Akbar mentions a category of saints who have received divine knowledge and the rare grace or gift of knowing in advance what would happen to them. This category hastens to do what is prescribed in their destiny and get rid of all sins so that only a clean time and atmosphere* remains between them and God. These people will not be punished because God has honored them with such a knowledge that they are close to God. (cf. Fut. III, 124).

* (subpoena: summoning someone before the court/judgment as a defendant or witness).

XI - Satan's Burden on Judgment Day

If Satan is partly to blame for evil, he is not punished because he is a monotheist. Also, it should be remembered that he always regrets it. But the problem is that the Devil is forced to carry out his mission, while at the same time he claims his innocence and his fear of God.

{ They are like satan who said to people, "Reject the faith," but when the people rejected the faith he said, "I have nothing to do with you. I fear the Lord of the Universe". }

{ The fate of both of them will be hell fire wherein they will live forever. Thus will be the recompense for the unjust. } (Sura 59, 16-17)

Where does Satan's burden come from? It comes from what God has revealed through His Prophet ﷺ in a saying: "Whoever institutes a bad practice, will bear its burden or consequence, and the burden of all who have followed it."

This means that the Devil on the Day of Judgment will bear the burden of others and not his own, as he repents after every sin and repents of it, but will immediately continue with another deceiving act. Satan is punished because he is responsible for the fact that people have acted as they have because of Satan's promptings. (cf. Fut. IV, 474).

XII - Satan's Punishment in Hell

There is no doubt that the most punished of all creatures in Hell is the Devil. It is He who has instituted shirk (setting any partner with God or by His side, polytheism, associationism) and all kinds of sins and crimes in this world.

But since he is made of fire, his torment and torment must consist of the opposite element, i.e. extreme cold and ice, zamharīr (see Dante Alighieri : La Divina Comedia, where Satan is also tormented by ice and cold).

Satan, however, according to Sheikh Muhyi d-Dīn Ibn Arabī, must also be tormented with a special fire combined with air, water and earth. (cf. Fut. I, 300).

XIII - Satan's Hopes for God's Mercy

As it turns out, Satan is not kāfir in the sense of “godless” but rather infidel, unfaithful. He is called kāfir because he conceals and hides the paths of happiness from the people. We have already said that the stem KFR in Arabic originally means STR i.e. to cover, hide. (cf. Fut. III, 382). The Qur'an says: { And he became among the disbelievers. } (Cor.2, 34)

Satan is also not mushrik i.e. one who gives or associates a partner with God, because he believes in one God.

{ This is like the Evil One, when he says to man, "Deny Allah": but when (man) denies/ disbelieves in Allah, (the Evil One) says, "I am free of thee: I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!" } (Sura 59, 16).

The devil knows that Hell does not accept any believer (muwahhid, monotheist) forever and that God will never leave anyone who has a shred of faith forever in Hell, so Satan harbors hopes and expectations on good grounds.

An incident illustrates Satan's attitude in this regard. One day Sahl al-Tustari, a spiritual master from Abadan, met Satan and there was a long discussion between them. Finally the Devil said: "O Sahl, you know well that God says: { My mercy embraces everything } (Sura 7, 156), it is universal as you see, and I am 'one thing' of the whole without doubt, thus included in the word 'everything'. Therefore I consider myself covered by God's mercy!

Sahl was appalled, stunned and speechless by Satan's interpretation of this verse in the Quran, and rightfully so. (cf. Fut.II, 662 and 466).

When Satan realized that God's mercy permeated the entire universe, he was rightly motivated to hope for God's mercy, but the mercy He bestows on whom He wills (min 'ain al-minnah) not the mercy attached to any merit or work (la min 'ain al-wujūb), as Ibn Arabī explains. (cf Fut. III, 369).

In connection with the Islamic pilgrimage that takes place every year, Satan also stands there in the lower area of Arafat in a place called the 'Urnah. He does this every year and weeps with heartfelt regret. He is aware and feels compelled to carry out his seductive message. He finds support for his behavior because he at least obeys God and fulfills the mission that he undertook when God said to him: { Go your way, and lead them, and make promises to them! }

The devil feels comforted and saddened at the same time as he is allowed to observe and witness the overwhelming and extraordinary grace that embraces all the assembled believers at Arafat's place. Satan who is there at a distance is convinced in his heart that he must partake of this grace sooner or later. This is Satan's good idea of God's generosity. (cf. Fut. I, 718).

XIV - The Fate of Satan in the Future

Grace or mercy does not mean that Satan will get out of Hell. He and his followers belong to this abode, because God has created Paradise and Hell and made sure to fill them with their respective inhabitants. (cf. Fut. I, 718).

The very punishment of Hell will end one day because the Prophet ﷺ peace be upon him - has said that "God's mercy will surpass His wrath".

In conclusion, it should be said that all the genuine revealed religions face the same satanic dangers that threaten everyone in all societies, therefore it is absolutely necessary that they unite [2] in the same fight against evil and its manifold aspects.

All believers - as long as they live in this world - should be vigilant and contribute to the victory of Truth until the danger in the next life is cancelled for the blessed[3] or, as it is said in the Midrash Vayosh'a:


"There will be no Satan in the world to come."


Other texts from the original website by Imam Ahmed Vālsan:
- About Traditionen
- The unchanging religion
- Jesus Messias, Marias son
- True islamic equality

Other languages in this series

- Startpage | - English | - Francais | - Deutsch | - Sitemap

"In any case, what Westerners call civilization, the others would call barbarity, because it is precisely lacking in the essential, that is to say, a principle of a higher order."
René Guénon, East And West, 1924

صلّى الله على سيّدنا محمّد و على آله و صحبه و سلّم

The blessings and peace of Allah on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions, ( sallAllahu `aleihi wa sallam ) .



link-in CNN: Syrian Scholar, Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, condemns ISIS - youtube
link-in WBEZ's Worldview: Interview with Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi about ISIS (Daesh) - youtube
link-in BBC World: Interview with Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi about ISIS 11-12-2014 - youtube

  1. This is 16.66%

  2. cooperate

  3. cancelled danger in the next life:
    this is regarding after the Day of Judgement, when the righteous, faithful believers are entering the gardens of Paradise.


* Living Islam – Islamic Tradition *