Explanation of Some Important Islamic Terms:

Islamic Concepts & Definitions

ed. Omar K N

More here: A Concise Sunni Glossary of Fiqh, H.adîth, Kalâm, and Tas.awwuf link-green
1.1 Action - `amal:

1.1.1 ) We must look at each action that we do, or are about to do, and make sure that it will be pleasing to Allah, or His Prophet :

Otherwise we will see that great actions are being made small because of one's intention and vice-versa. This can best be shown by the hadith related by Abu Umama, when a man once came to the Prophet and said, "What of a man who joined us in fighting, his intention being for fame and booty?" The Prophet said, "He receives nothing." The man repeated the question three times, and each time the Prophet said, "He receives nothing." Then he said,
"Allah only accepts actions that are intended purely for His pleasure." (an-Nisa'i)

more below on the role of intention
An-Nawawi: "Actions are according to intentions"


1.1.2. ) Weighing Actions:
1.1.2.1 ) hadith

Our Prophet says:
It is more lovely for Allah that a man sits for an hour thinking and weighing his actions, than if he prays for seventy years! MOO 129

1.1.2.2 ) You must, O my brothers, be mindful of Allah in all your movements and times of stillness, at every moment, with every blink of the eye, with every thought, wish or any other state. Feel His nearness to you! Know that He looks and is Aware of you, that nothing that you conceal is hidden from Him. (Su 10-61; 20-7; )
{ He is with you whereever you are, } (Su 57-4) with His knowledge, awareness and power. If you are of the righteous, He will guide, assist and protect you.
...
If you find in your heart, when you call to mind the fact that Allah observes you, a shyness that prevents you from disobeying Him and drives you to exert yourself in obeying Him, you are in possession of something of the realities of vigilance (murâqabah).

Imam `Abdallah Ibn Alawi Al-Haddad,
The Book Of Assistance, chapter on vigilance (murâqabah), GB 1989
see below: The Universal Principle For Doing Good


1.1.3 ) The Highest Form of Action
The highest form of action is the invocation of the Divine Name
associated with the prayer of the heart which requires the complete participation of man's will and concentration of mind.
KS 315-6 the word: invocation-

1.1.4 ) Two Kinds of Actions
"What a difference there is between two kinds of actions - an act whose pleasure passes away but its (ill) consequence remains and an act whose hardship passes away but its reward stays."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-515 no.121 (a: 118)

1.1.5 ) Ali (kw) was asked concerning Actions and Alms and he said:
man qas.s.ara fi-l `amali- btuli bi-l hammi

"Whoever falls short of actions gets into grief, (and)"

lâ h.âjata li-llahi fîman laisa li-llahi fî mâlihi wa nafihi nas.îbun

"Allah has nothing to do with him who spares nothing from his weath in the name of Allah."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-517 no.126 (a: 124-5)


1.2) Human Acts of Those Morally Responsible - af'âl al-mukallifîn

 

1.3) Kinds of Legal Rulings

1.3.1 (`Abd al-Wahhab Khallaf:) A legal ruling is a statement from the Lawgiver (syn. Allah or His messenger MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace) concerning the acts of those morally responsible which:

(1) requires something;
(2) allows a choice;
(3) or gives stipulations.

1.3.2 An injunctive ruling is one that enjoins the morally responsible individual to either do or refrain from an act, or gives him an option to do or refrain from it.

An example of enjoining one to do an act is Allah's saying,

{ People owe Allah to make pilgrimage to the House } (Koran 3:97).

An example of enjoining one to refrain from an act is His saying,

{ Let no people mock another people } (Koran 49: 11).

And an example of giving an option to do or refrain from an act is His saying,

{ When the prayer is finished, go forth in the land } (Koran 62:10).

1.3.3 As for stipulatory rulings, they entail that something is made a legal reason (sabab) for another thing, a condition (shart) for it, or a preventive (mani') of it.

An example of being stipulated as a reason for something is Allah's saying,

{ O believers, when you go to pray, wash your faces and wash your forearms to the elbows } (Koran 5:6),

which stipulates wanting to pray as a reason for the obligation of performing ablution (wudu).

An example of something being made a condition for another thing is His saying,

{ People owe Allah to make pilgrimage to the House, whoever is able to find a way } (Koran 3:97),

which implies that the ability to get to the House (n: Kaaba) is a condition for the obligatoriness of one's pilgrimage. Another example is the Prophet's saying MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace):

There is no marriage unless there are two witnesses,

which means the presence of two witnesses is a condition for the validity of a marriage.

An example of being made a preventive of something is the Prophet's saying MHMD Allah bless him and give him peace),

The killer does not inherit,

which entails that an heir's killing the deceased is preventive of his inheriting an estate division share from him (`Ilmusulal-fiqh (y7l),100-102). RT-27/28

 

2. Belief - îmân:

2.1 ) Iman (faith / belief) is of two kinds:
- The simple expression of faith in the teachings of the Quran and ahadith (or traditions);
- The formal declaration of belief in the six articles of Muslim creed:

  1. in Allah
  2. the Angels of Allah
  3. the holy books of Allah
  4. the Prophets of Allah
  5. the Day of Judgement
  6. Predestination to good and evil
In the traditions, iman includes practice (`amal), and all that belongs to the religious life of the Muslim. DI 204ii

2.2 ) Belief
The Muslim believes in One God, who is all-powerful and has no partner; believes in his messengers, sent to mankind for their guidance from the beginning of time; believes that Muhammad closed the cycle of messengers and that there can be no further revelation of the divine Law after him; believes that the Quran is the Word of God, unaltered and unalterable, and believes in the obligation to conform to the 'Five Pillars', which are the confession of faith, the five daily prayers, payment of the poor-due, the fast of Ramadan, and performance of the Pilgrimage to Mecca by those physically and financially able to undertake it. A Muslim may neglect one or more of the pillars (except the first) and still be counted as a believer, but if he denies their necessity he has placed himself outside the community. IDM3u

2.3 ) Ali (ra) was asked concerning belief îmân and he said:

"al-îmân ma`rifatun bil-qalb,
wa iqrâr bi-lisân wa `amal bi-l arkân"

"Belief îmân is appreciation / gnosis by the heart,
acknowledgement iqrâr with tongue and action `amalun with limbs."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-536 no.227 (a: 225)

2.4 ) Belief îmân is being true to the trust amânah which Allah has placed in man:

Surely We offered the trust (amânah) to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear it and shrank from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; surely he is unjust, ignorant.
Sura The Allies (33) verse 72

2.5 ) Belief (iman) is incomplete for whoever does not love for his brother what he loves for himself, according to the famous hadith:
"lâ yuminu ahadukum hatta yuhibbu li-akhîhi ma yuhibbu li-nafsihi"
CFH-62
"He is not a believer who does not love for his brother what he loves for himself."

2.6 ) Belief îmân has been explained by none other than the Angel Jibril (a.s.) in the famous hadith on islam, iman, ihsan:

see: An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths
see also at * living islam * Is Belief In God Enough? OKN
read: What or Who Is God? Murat Yagan

 

3. Good Behavior - adab:

3.1 ) Adab embraces the consideration of all those moral excellencies which are enjoined by the Quran and Traditions (ahadith), as sincerity ikhlâs-; trust and confidence in God (tawakkul); humility (tawâdu'); resignation (tafwîz); keeping down one's expectation (qasru-l amal); renunciation of the world (zuhd fi-ddunyâ-; giving good counsel and advice nasîha-; contentment (qanâ'ah); liberality (sakhâwah); love for Allah and man (hubb); patience (sabr); &c. DI 285ii

3.2 ) Righteousness And Sin

Narrated An-Nawwâs (ra):

I asked the Prophet of Allah about righteousness and sin, and he said:

Al-birru h.usnu-l khalqi, wa-l ithmu mâ h.âka fî s.adrika,
wa karihta an yat.t.ali`a `aleihi-nnâsu

Righteousness / piety is good character and sin is that which disturbs your heart, about which you do not want people to know. Muslim

3.3 ) The Rules of Religion Against The World

It is related that Ibrahim Khawwas said:
“I desire Allah to give me an everlasting life in this world dunya-,
in order that, while mankind are engrossed in the pleasures of the world and forget Allah,
I may observe the rules of religion amidst the affliction (fitnah) of the world and remember Allah.”

3.4 ) Part of The Adab of Islam Is Gentleness
The Prophet said,

“O `Â.isha, always have gentleness,
and always shun harsh words and vulgarity”
Al-Bukhari, 8.57

When a group of Jews said ugly words and `Â.isha responded in a similar way:

Yâ `Â.ishatu, inna-l llâha rafîqun
yuh.ibbu-r rifqa fî-l amri kullihi

“O `Â.isha! Allah is kind and lenient and
likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.”
Al-Bukhari, 9.61

If this is the adab of Islam with hardened enemies, so how should it not apply to our fellow Muslims, let alone family and loved ones? 

3.5 ) Leaving What Does Not Concern One
The Prophet said,

“The excellence of a person's Islam includes leaving what does not concern him.”

“The excellence of a person's Islam”:

Here Muhammad Jurdani commented:
Meaning the fullness and perfection of a person's Islam and his submission to its rules includes leaving what does not concern him, meaning that which is not connected with what is important to one, be it in word or deed.
The matters that concern a person are those connected with necessities of life in gaining a livelihood and having a safe return in the afterlife. These do not amount to much in comparison with what does not concern one.

Al-Jawahir al-lu'lu'iyya fi sharh al `Arba`în al-Nawawiyya (y68), 99, in RT w54.0
from external link: - Adab of the Islam by Nuh Keller

 

4. This Lower Life - dunyâ:

4.1 ) hadith: “The believer's prison”

The Prophet said:

ad-dunyâ sijnu-l mumini wa jannatu-l kâfiri
This (lower) life is the believer's prison and the disbeliever's paradise.

4.2 ) The Period And Use Of This World:

"al-dunya sa`atun fa ij`alha ta`atan"
"This world lasts for an hour: Spend it in obedience."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) related by Ibn al-Jawzi in "Sifat al-safwat"

4.3 ) The Islamic teaching concerning this world - dunya:

{ Surely those who do not hope in Our meeting and are pleased with this world's life and are content with it, and those who are heedless of Our communications/ verses: (As for) those, their abode is the fire because of what they earned.} Sura Yunus 10, verses 7/8

One of the enormities- [ of sins ] is wanting the life of this world more than the next and being satisfied and contented with it. RT

4.4 ) Two Kinds of People:
"This world is a place of transit, not a place of stay. The people herein are of two categories: One is the man who sold away his self (to passions) and thus ruined it, and the other the man who purchased his self (by control against passions) and freed it. "
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-520 no.133 (a: 131)

4.5 ) Like A Serpent
"This world is like a serpent. It is soft in touch but its inside is full of venom.
An ignorant person who has fallen in deceit is attracted towards it but a wise and intelligent man keeps guard from it."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-514 no.119 (a: 116)

4.6 ) Reality Or Imagination?
This world is maintained by [Divine] imagination. You call it 'reality', since it can be seen and perceived and those meanings of which the world is an offshoot you call 'imagination.' The true situation is the reverse. The imagination is this world itself, for that Meaning [by Allah] brings into existence a hundred worlds like this, and they rot and disintegrate and become naught. Then It [Allah] produces a new world and better... RUM-250

4.7 ) One Reality
All Reality (Being - wujûd) is one and an absolute Unity.
It is the source and cause of all beings.
There is only one reality in existence;
from different angles it is called the One, the Real (al-Haqq),
or the many, the phenomenal world, appearences, (al-khalq);
so - the One and the Many are only names
for two aspects of One Reality;
and because Allah is the One and there is no 'other',
and because Allah is the Real and there is no-one more 'real',
so this Ultimate Reality is Allah and there is no other. AFF

related link on other site:
Interview with Sheikh T. Bayrak al-Jerrahi: To be in the world but not of it, x L 20120703

 

5. Heart - qalb / Sadr:

5.1 ) The heart is the principle of both the mind and the body. KS 311+11

5.2 ) hadith: Compassion In The Hearts:

Narrated Usama bin Zaid:

The daughter of the Prophet sent someone to her father requesting him to come as her child was dying (or was gasping), but the Prophet told him to convey his greeting to her and say:
"Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah's reward."
She again sent for him, swearing that he should come. The Prophet got up, and so did Sad bin 'Ubada, Muadh bin Jabal, Ubai bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit and some other men. The child was brought to Allah's Apostle while his breath was disturbed in his chest ... On that the eyes of the Prophet started shedding tears. Sad said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is this?" He replied,
"It is mercy which Allah has put in the hearts of His slaves, and Allah is merciful only to those of His slaves who are merciful (to others)."
wa innamâ yarHamu-LLahu min `ibâdihi-rruHamâ. . B2-373

5.3 ) Traditional doctrine states that Sacred Knowledge is being attainable not through the mind but the heart once it is purified and the 'eye of the heart '... opened. KS28-5

5.4 ) hadith: What Whispers In The Hearts:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, "Allah has accepted (my invocation) on behalf of my community not to take into account of what whispers in their hearts, unless they put it to action or utter it."
Bukhari vol 3, book 46, no. 705

5.5 ) Hearts Advancing And Retreating:

inna li-l qulûbi shahwatan wa iqbâlan wa idbâran
fa.tûhâ min qabli shahwatihâ fa-inna-l qalba idhâ akrihâ `amiya

"Hearts are imbued with passion and power of advancing and retreating. Therefore approach them for action at a time of (or: before) their passionateness (and when they are in the mood of advancing), because if hearts are forced (to do a thing) they get blind."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-531 no.193 (a: 191)

more on the heart- as described by Imam Al-Ghazali
-Note of Al-Suyuti about the science of the heart
-Advice of the Prophet about the hardness of the heart

 

6. Islamic Law - shari`ah:

6.1 ) The Law of Islam is also called the "Way or Road" in Islam, which Allah has established for the guidance of mankind, both for the worship of God and for the duties of life.

6.2 ) The occidental tends to see the shari`ah as a straightjacket rather than as a framework, unaware that it has within it adequate space for free movement (and for individual differences), and unwilling to accept the psychological implications of the fact that a physical body disintegrates when placed in a vacuum. IDM170

 

7. Jihâd:

7.1 ) Striving hard for Allah's countenance and pleasure.

7.2 ) The Universal Principle For Doing Good
This universal principle states that in order to do good one must be good; in order to conquer the world one must first conquer oneself, which means one's lower passions.
This universal truth needs to be reasserted today more than ever before when so many wish to reform the world without having reformed themselves. SH Nasr

7.3 ) Jihad is first against the self nafs
(It has to be noted) that the verses of jihâd were revealed in the Meccan period when military action was impossible, proving that the first and foremost jihad meant by Allah Most High is the jihad against the self, without which the second is a corrupt jihad (jihâd al-fasâd) - of which, unfortunately, there is abundant illustration nowadays. GF Haddad

What is the self and the soul? See: The Meaning Of Nafs

7.4 ) Wrong and defect definition of jihad:
“Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders, but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe in Allah.”

Comment to the above: "War against any unjust regime" is just another self-righteous slogan which, when put into practice opens the doors to all kind of sabotage and killings, which are certainly not according to the Islamic Law!
In this respect you may compare 7.4 with 7.5 !

7.5 ) Rebellion Against Rulers
“Whoever lives under a particular government must obey the ruler and live peacefully. They are prohibited from taking up arms against him. Uprising or violence by any group against the ruler is completely rejected in Islam, and was prohibited by the Prophet and will be a cause of death on the way of ignorance (jahiliyya).”

7.6 ) Conditions for Combative Jihad
“The position of the law is that only at such a time when it can be reasonably proven that there are aggressive designs against Islam and there are concerted efforts to eject Muslims from their legally acquired property and that military campaigns are being launched to eradicate them.
At such a time the ruler can declare and execute the provisions of Jihad. It is a condition that there be a leader of the Muslims, an Imam, to declare combative Jihad.”

7.7 ) The principles of treating the illnesses of the soul
They are five:
-lightening the stomach by diminishing one's food and drink,
-taking refuge in Allah Most High from the unforeseen when it befalls,
-shunning situations that involve what one fears to fall victim to,
-continually asking for Allah's forgiveness and His blessings
     upon the Prophet night and day with full presence of mind,
-and keeping the company of him who guides one to Allah.

more- An-Nawawi, al-Maqasid fi bayan ma yajibu ma'rifatuhu min al-din

 

8. Human Norm - fitrah

8.1 ) Man is fully responsible for his actions, in that Islam does not adhere to the concept of original sin. He has been created in the 'most perfect of forms' (sura 95 verse 4) and it is only later, when he veers from his inherent path to which he was called by God that he falls very low. As the Messenger of Allah has said, everyone has been created pure and that sins are first committed in adolescence. Another tradition by him, which is often told in this context, says that every child is born according to its natural disposition fitrah and it is the parents who bring him up to become a Jew, Christian or Magian.
    This concept of fitrah, or human norm-, which in a way comes close to the concept of conscience, means that man has an inborn awareness of what is true and good, for the simple reason that he was born as a human being.
    This conscience, though unclear with most of the people, has to be actuated by the light of revelation and the pattern of the Prophet who clearly represents the perfect norm for the whole of mankind.
    The disbeliever, however, inhibits his fitrah through his deliberate denial. It is ultimately the source which would enable him to recognize the truth emanating from revelation. In order to excuse himself he would have to declare his innocence which only increases his responsability. DEC  
    The 'psychological implication of fitrah', is that "although man is born in a state of fitrah, he also has the potential for wrong, (so) in order to actualise his fitrah, man needs to gain control over this potential for wrong within himself." Yasien Mohamed - LINK -

-related link on this site: What Is Norm And What Normality?

 

9. Reverential fear of Allah, or the awe of God - taqwa:

9.1 ) An Imam said: “istiqâma `ayn at-taqwa”: To be upright, sincere (in following the Quran and Sunna) is the essence of God-fearingness (taqwa).
Through Quran and Sunna we seek protection from losing Allahs pleasure. OD

9.2 ) "Taqwa's meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah and abandoning disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good."
Ibn Juzayy in his dictionary of quranic words: Kitâb at-tashîl li `ulûm at-tanzîl. CFH-58

9.3 ) "O people, have taqwâ (fear) of Allah, who is such that when you speak He hears and when you conceal (a secret) He knows it. Prepare yourself to meet death which would overtake you even if you run away, catch you even if you stay and remember you even if you forget it."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-532 no.199 (a: 201)

there is - protection from sins in the sunnah

 

10. Religion - dîn:

10.1 ) The dîn (religion of Islam ) is the way of life as modelled by the Prophet Muhammad MHMD, also - it is the lifetransaction for what we owe to Allah.

10.2 ) Linguistically this word can mean obedience, worship, or recompense and repayment.
The shari`ah definition however is: that which Allah legislated upon the tongue of His Prophet MHMD concerning laws. Synonymous with this are the words Islam, and shari`ah.

10.3 ) It is not enough just to learn and believe in Allah and His messengers.
(Peace be upon them all). Rather, one has to also learn:

(1) the laws by which Allah wants a person to live by,
(2) the specific beliefs concerning unseen things, and
(3) the method of purifying the human soul until it can see Allah.
These three things together are called the dîn.

more on the: - fundamentals of faith

10.4 ) The function of all religions is to save man from the imperfections implied by their terrestrial state. KS 230 c
[ Though this general statement is true for all religions, it does not follow that all religions are somehow the same or equal. ]

more on 'The Religion': - dîn

10.5 ) The 'ill' of religion certainly does not lie in the hypothetical vanity of all doctrine, but solely in the fact that too many men either have not followed, or do not follow, true doctrines. UI-112/3 (→ doctrine)

10.6 )
Religion (al-dîn) is an orchard of which
the fence is the Law (al-sharî`a),
the inner grove is the Path (al-tarîqa),
and the fruit is the Reality (al-haqîqa).

Whoever has no Law has no Religion;
whoever has no Path has no Law; and
whoever has no Reality has no Path.

Shaykh al-`Arusi in: Sufism in Islam

10.7 ) The personal accomplishment and fulfillment in religion is ihsân, (spiritual excellence).

see external page on Ihsân, x L 20120703

 

11. Remembering Allah, invocations, recitations - dhikr:

11.1 ) To remember or recite aloud or either with a low voice or mentally the name of Allah, or the shahadah: la ilaha illa-LLah, Muhammadan rasuulu-LLah, or a surah or some verses from the Holy Quran. OD

11.2 ) Dhikr or invocation ... is related to the eternal present and which transforms, sanctifies, and delivers man from both daydreaming about the future or the past and by facing Reality, which resides in the present. KS 246fn10

11.3 ) hadith qudsi: Mentioning Allah's Name:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Prophet said: Allah the Almighty said:

"I am as My servant thinks I am*. I am with him when he makes mention of Me. If he makes mention of Me to himself, I make mention of him to Myself; and if he makes mention of Me in an assembly, I make mention of him in an assemble better than it. And if he draws near to Me an arm's length, I draw near to him an arm's length. And if he comes to Me walking, I go to him at speed."

*«anâ `inda Zanni `abdî bî»


* Another possible rendering of the Arabic:
"I am as My servant expects Me to be".
It was related by al-Buhkari (also by Muslim, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn-Majah).

read: - On dhikr
See also hadith: - to gather for dhikr (for the remembrance of Allah)

 

12. Sin - dhamb, khaTi.ah, ithm:

12.1 ) Islam sees the cardinal sin of man in his forgetfulness ghaflah of who he is, although he still carries his primordial nature al-fitrah within himself. KS 185fn14
The words: primordial , cardinal

12.2 ) It is generally held that there are 17 'kabirah' - greater - sins:

  1. kufr - infidelity
  2. Constantly committing little sins
  3. Dispairing of Allah's mercy
  4. Considering oneself safe from the wrath of God
  5. False witness
  6. qadhf - falsely charging a Muslim with adultery
  7. Taking a false oath
  8. Magic
  9. Drinking wine
  10. Appropriation of the property of orphans
  11. Usury
  12. Adultery
  13. Unnatural crime
  14. Theft
  15. Murder
  16. Fleeing in battle before an infidel enemy
  17. Disobedience to parents DI 594ii
 
more on external site: - The Major Sins

12.3 ) Islam sets out to abolish both uncertainty and hesitation and especially both error and sin; error in holding that the Absolute is not, or that it is relative..; (whereas) sin places these errors on the level of the will or of action. UI 13

   see hadith above on: - piety - sin

12.5 ) hadith: Faith Taken Away From Believer:

Narrated 'Ikrima from Ibn 'Abbas:

The Messenger of Allah said, "When a slave (of Allah) commits illegal sexual intercourse, he is not a believer at the time of committing it; and if he steals, he is not a believer at the time of stealing; and if he drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not a believer at the time of drinking it; and he is not a believer when he commits a murder,"
'Ikrima said: I asked Ibn Abbas, "How is faith taken away from him?" He said, "Like this," by clasping his hands and then separating them, and added, "But if he repents, faith returns to him like this," by clasping his hands again. B8-800 b

12.6 ) hadith: The biggest sin:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud:

I said, " O Messenger of Allah! Which is the biggest sin?" He said,
"To set up rivals to Allah though He alone has created you."
I asked, "What is next?" He said, "To kill your child so that it should not share your food."
I asked, " What is next?" He said, "To commit illegal sexual intercourse with the wife of your neighbor." B8-802

12.7 ) Abstention From Sin:

tarku-dh dhanbi ahwanu min t.alabi-t taubati

"Abstention from sin is easier than seeking help afterwards."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-527 no.170 (a: 168)

12.8 ) "Whoever falls into ambivalent matters ... haram"

Meaning that either it is haram or not, or that he would _almost_ fall into haram, as it is said, "Acts of disobedience are the postal service of disbelief (kufr)", because when a person falls into infringements, he will advance step by step from one corruption to another greater than it. CFH39


There is - protection from sins in the sunnah

 

13. Disbeliever - kafir

13.1 ) A disbeliever is he who directs his hostile attitude against Islam or muslims, with hand, tongue or pen. Then he is a kafir, whether he belongs to some religion or is an atheist.
From this follows that if a Non-Muslims treats Muslims in a normal and proper way, he must not be considered a kafir, also because it cannot be said that he has got correct knowledge of Islam, while living in the West with its anti-Islam propaganda.


 

14. The Levels of The Unlawful - Harâm:

14.1 ) Scholars distinguish between three levels of the unlawful:

(1) minor sins (saghira, pl. sagha'ir), which may be forgiven from prayer to prayer, from one Friday prayer (jumu'a) to another, and so forth, as is mentioned in the hadith.

(2) enormities (kabira, pl. kaba'ir), those which appear by name in the Koran or hadith as the subject of an explicit threat, prescribed legal penalty, or curse.

(3) and unbelief (kufr), sins which put one beyond the pale of Islam and necessitate stating the Testification of Faith (Shahada) to reenter it.

Repentance is obligatory for all three. RT-31

 

15. Islam

15.1 ) Islam
Islam is to believe in the words of Allah and the Prophet and to accept them.
It is to obey Allah in reverence , to purify one's inner and outer self and to harmonize one's speech with it.
The one who fulfills these prerequisites is a Muslim. ISKA-11

15.2 ) Islam
Islam is a way of life as old as man himself. It consists of beliefs and actions, but neither of the two is, by itself, deemed enough. All great teachers of the world - Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad - are to be respected as the true prophets of Allah, because they all preached Islam, each according to its time. With the Holy Prophet of Islam the basic teachings of Islam received their final shape. So Muhammad was the Last of the Prophets. LSIS-5
Islam is the last boat to shore.

15.3 ) Islam
"I am defining Islam as no-one has defined (it) before me:
Islam is submission taslîm, submission is conviction yaqîn, conviction is affirmation tasdîq, affirmation is acknowledgement iqrâr, acknowledgement is discharge ( of obligation) adâ.u, discharge of obligation is action `amal. "
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-517 no.125 (a: 122)

15.4 ) Islam has been explained by none other than the Angel Jibril (a.s.) in the famous hadith on islam, iman, ihsan:

•  This famous hadith is at: An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths

 

16. Truth, Sincerity - haqîqah:

16.1 ) The profound truth of everything created. It is "the essence of a thing as meaning that by being which a thing is what it is." DI 162i

16.2 ) Islamic haqîqah: Islam in its aspect of divine truth and knowledge

16.3 ) Shari`ah - haqîqah and the difference between them:

These terms are used ... to denote [the] soundness of the outward state and [the] maintenance of the inward state.
Two parties err in this matter:
firstly, the formal theologians, who assert that there is no distinction between shari`at (law) and haqîqat (truth), since the Law is the Truth and the Truth is the Law;
secondly, some heretics, who hold that it is possible for one of these things to subsist without the other, and declare that when the Truth is revealed the Law is abolished. This is, the doctrine of [some sects].

The proof that the Law is virtually separate from the Truth lies in the fact that in faith belief is separate from profession and the proof that the Law and the Truth are not fundamentally separate, but are one, lies in the fact that belief without profession is not faith, and conversely profession without belief is not faith; and there is a manifest difference between profession and belief.

Haqiqat, then, signifies a reality which does not admit of abrogation and remains - in equal force, from the time of Adam, to the end of the world, like knowledge of God and like religious practice, which is made perfect by sincere intention; and shari`at signifies a reality which admits of abrogation and alteration, like ordinances and commandments. Therefore shari`at is man's act, while haqîqat is God's keeping and preservation and protection, whence it follows that shari`at cannot possibly be maintained without the existence of haqîqat, and haqîqat cannot be maintained without observance of shari`at. Their mutual relation may be compared to that of body and spirit: when the spirit departs from the body the living body becomes a corpse and the spirit vanishes like wind, for their value depends on their conjunction with one another.

Similarly, the Law without the Truth is ostentation, and Truth without the Law is hypocrisy. God has said: "Whosoever strives hard for Our sake, we will assuredly guide them in Our ways ( sura al-`ankabut 29, verse 69): striving hard (jâhada) is Law, guidance is Truth; the former consists in a man's observance of the external ordinances, while the latter consists in God's maintenance of a man's spiritual feelings. Hence the Law is one of the acts acquired by man, but the Truth is of the gifts bestowed by God. KAM-383/4

related text at this site: S H Nasr: Sharî`ah, Tarîqah And Haqîqah
related text (external link):
Interview with Sheikh T. Bayrak al-Jerrahi: www.wie.org/j18/bayrak.asp - To be in the world but not of it, x L 20120705

 

17. Alms - sadaqah:

17.1 ) Give voluntary charity as much as possible, for you owe more than merely the zakat obligatory. Make provision from the afterlife by giving while you have health and want to cling to your money out of fear of poverty, seeing life before you. read: Sura 59-9. RT-803

17.2 ) Protection against the Fire:

ittaqû-n nâra wa lau bi-shaqqi tamaratin

"Protect yourself against the fire (of Hell),
even by giving away half a piece of a date (in charity). "
`Adiyy bn Hâtim relates that he heard the Messenger of Allah say it.

17.3 ) Giving Alms - sadaqah:

istanzilû-r rizqa bi-s. s.adaqati

"Seek livelihood by giving alms."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-520 no.137 (a: 135)

17.4 ) Generousity in Giving - sadaqah:

man ayqana bi-l khalafi jâda bi-l `at.iyati

"He who is sure of a good return is generous in giving."
Saying of `Ali ibn Abi Talib (kw) in NB-520 no.138 (a: 136)

- See above: - Neither Actions Nor Alms

 

18. Sincerity (ikhlâs)

18.1 ) ikhlâs
It means "the purification of your action from all tinge , ... so that in it only exists the striving to come closer to Allah and no other motive."
Al-Ghazalî in his Ihya IE-I-57

 

19. Vice-Regent Of Allah - khalîfat - Allah:

19.1 ) Man Is Vice-Regent Of Allah On Earth.

    Allah the Creator of the universe created man as the best creature in all creation. He says in the Holy Qur'an:

We have indeed created man in the best of forms.
Sura The Fig (95) verse 4

   With the best of forms and due to his particular qualities man was exalted in his position as he was made vice-regent of Allah on earth. Allah even commanded the angels to fall down in obeisance to him. But it was man who took it on to himself to shoulder this big responsibility - amânah - and to discharge the duties as deputy of the Lord, with all the difficulties and suffering this entails.

See external site for: - Man to work as vice regent of God on earth, x L 20120703

 

20. Oneness Or Unity Of Allah - at-tauhîd:

20.1 ) It is the knowledge of Allah's oneness or unification.

20.2 ) When one realizes that everything besides Allah is bound to vanquish because it is no cause in itself and has neither real power over anything and nor independent being, one comes to a point to reject everything except the First Cause, the Independent Being, God, Allah. This then is:

The path of those You have favoured, not of those who earn Your anger or of those who go astray.
Quran, sura the Opening (1) verse7
FSH-26

20.3 ) Those who profess belief in unification ( tauhîd ) may be classified into three groups: those, including hypocrites, who confess the unity with the tongue only; those who believe on the basis of some so-called reliable authority; and those who, on the evidence of their direct, intuitive perception, believe that God is the unmoved Mover of the material world and the ultimate Cause of all creation and that He alone has real or absolute existence. The last stage is the highest.

   from: muslimphilosophy.com, x L 20120705

20.4 ) Ibn `Ata' Allah said:
“The one who utters the Word of Oneness needs three lights ...”

- more on dhikr - invocation of God's name

 

21. Worship - `ibâdah:

21.1 ) Worshipping the ONE:

`ibâdah is worship (devotion) for the ONE Being
which is worthy of being worshipped, God - Allah,
may His Majesty be exalted!
And He is the Real, the Truth, the Ever-Living, the Eternal.


This is how Allah adressed all of mankind:

O you men ! worship your Lord who created you
and those before you, that you may guard against evil.
Quran, sura the Cow (2) verse 21

see also related hadith: - worship ( `ibâdah )

 

22. Sunna (the traditional way of Islam) - sunnah:

22.1 ) Sunna is the practice of Islam:
The Arabic word sunna lexically means "road" or "practice." In the language of the Prophet and the Companions it denotes the whole of licit [lawful] practices followed in the Religion (dîn), particularly the pristine (hanîf) path of Prophets, whether pertaining to belief, religious and social practice, or ethics generally speaking. GF Haddad

more on the meaning of Sunna- by GF Haddad

22.2 ) On Following The Sunna:
"Know that the one who observes the Prophetic good manners in his everyday activities is preserved by Allah from trespassing into the base attributes and behavior that are outside them and obtains the religious and wordly benefits that Allah has set, through His wisdom within them."
Imam `Abdallâh Ibn `Alawî al-Haddâd, BA-51

 

23. Concept of "New Creation" ( khalqu-l jadîd )

23.1 ) By New Creation (khalqu-l jadîd) is meant the constant renewal of being in every single moment of time, and not a single act of creation is from nothing. This renewal happens much faster than human perception can perceive.

23.2 ) It follows from this theory, usually referred to by the Qur'anic term "new creation" (khalqu-l jadîd), that two consequent temporal states of the world are not related to each other as cause and effect. Each further state of the world is defined not by the preceding one, but by the way in which the inner relations of Divine unity will be embodied in the given moment. Cause-and-effect relations are renewed (they start anew) at each moment of time. They are in fact eternity-to-time relations: each essence, considered in its temporality, is effect, but regarded as an unmanifested inner correlation of Divinity, is cause.

See text at *li*: - On The Self-Disclosure of God Ibn `Arabi

See external site: Causality and Islamic Thought, Andrey Smirnov, x L 20120703

 

24. Futuwwah ( Chivalry)

24.1 ) Meaning youth and chivalry, Futuwwah, as a term, is a composite of virtues such as generosity, munificence, modesty, chastity, trustworthiness, loyalty, mercifulness, knowledge, humility and piety, and it is one of the stations a traveler on the path to Allah passes by and a dimension of sainthood.

Sum of the four virtues:

Forgiving when one is able to punish.
Preserving mildness and acting mildly and gently when one is furious.
Wishing even one's enemies well and doing them good.
Always being considerate of the well-being and happiness of others first even when one is needy.

more at: fethullahgulen.org, x L 20120703

24.2 ) "Futuwwah is knowing that others can be forgiven for their misdeeds,
but you yourself are always at fault;
that everyone and everything else is complete,
while you yourself are lacking.
Futuwwah is showing understanding and compassion equally to what appears good and what appears bad.
The highest form of Futuwwah is when nothing occupies you but Allah."
Abu `Abdullah al-Sajazi in FUT-99

 

 

25. The Lawful Halâl

The lawful is that by which one approaches near to Allah.
It is the way of Allah.
It is righteousness, obedience, good deeds, charity, and fairness. It is the way of those on the path al- salikîn, and the method of those intending Allah and worshipping Him; it is that which is travelled by everyone who desires Allah and follows the way of self-denial zuhd and religious practice, and what is called poverty and Sufism and the like. Ibn Taymiyya*

-*Ibn Taymiyya on the lawful - more

 

26. Some Notes On Sufism (tas.awwuf)

It “consists in cleansing the heart from whatever is other than Allah.”

According to Al-Ghazali in al-Munqidh - more

“When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to Allah, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law - even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind - asserting that his shortcorning is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of Allah Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved.”

Muhyiddin ibn al-`Arabi (ra) (Jami` karamat al-awliya' (y95) 1.3) in: RT s4.7

The primacy of the shari`a forms the soundest tradition in sufism.

According to Ibn Taymiyya - more

Sufism is a knowledge through which one knows the states of the human soul, praiseworthy or blameworthy, how to purify it from the blameworthy and ennoble it by acquiring the praiseworthy, and to journey and proceed to Allah Most High, fleeing unto Him.
Its fruits are the heart's development, knowledge of God through direct experience and ecstasy, salvation in the next world, triumph through gaining Allah's pleasure, the attainment of eternal happiness, and illuminating and purifying the heart so that noble matters disclose themselves, extraordinary states are revealed, and one perceives what the insight of others is blind to. Muhammad Amin Kurdi*

*Muhammad Amin Kurdi, tanwîr al-qulûb fi mu`amala `âlam al-ghuyûb,
     from: - Reality of 'Tasawwuf' (sufism)
read: - What is Sufism by GF Haddad
read: - Al-Junayd on Sufism, by GF Haddad

 

27. Prayer - salah

27.1 ) When you face the qiblah [direction towards the Ka`ba], you should despair of this world, what it contains of creation and what others are occupied with. Empty your heart of every preoccupation which might distract you from Allah. See the immensity of Allah with your innermost being, and remember that you will stand before Him. Ja`far As-Sâdiq LP-60

27.2 ) Some one said that the soul of prayer is complete absorbtion; it is a state of unconciousness which has no room for form, outward or inward, no room for thought or imagination. SR-201

27.3 ) Some hadith from the Messenger of Allah :

Prayer is the miraj (union with, or annihilation in, the Divine Essence by means of continual upward progress) of the Faithful.

He whom prayer preventeth not from wrongdoing and evil, increaseth in naught save in remoteness from the Lord.

from twf.org - at: Sayings

read: - prayer giving pleasure Al-Suyuti, The Medicine of the Prophet

 

28. Innovation bid'a

28.1 ) Hadith, Prophet Muhammad MHMD said:

“Every new matter (kullu muhdathatin) is an innovation (bid'a), every innovation is misguidance (dalala), and every misguidance is in the Fire.”

for reporters of this hadith

What is meant by the hadith “Every new matter is an innovation” is the innovation that contravene the texts of the Law. That, and that alone, is the innovation of misguidance.

28.2 ) H.ujjat al-Islâm al-Ghazzâlî said:

The fact that this (adding of dots to the Qur'anic script) is innovated (muh.dath) forms no impediment to this. How many innovated matters are excellent! As it was said concerning the establishing of congregations in Tarâwîh. that it was among the innovations of `Umar (ra) and that it was an excellent innovation (bid`a h.asana). The blameworthy bid`a is only what opposes the ancient Sunna or might lead to changing it.

 

29. Fanâ wa baqâ:

29.1 ) The dissolution of the ego, however, is not the denial or suppression or invalidation of the human person. In my personhood, I am a living face of God; the ego is simply all that stands between me and this knowledge. My recognized nothingness is nothing but my liberation from the illusory burden of my own self-creation. In Sufi terms, the other side of my annihilation in God - fanâ - is my subsistence in God - baqâ. Subsisting in Him, I know myself completely contingent upon Him; I see how I, in my unique personhood, am precisely as God wills me to be. God recognizes a certain aspect of Himself in me alone; no other person, object or entity can fill that role. At the root of my uniqueness is my annihilation. SAC-175

29.2 ) Fanâ means that you don't witness but Allah alone, not any more yourself. This happens when the veil is removed, but in reality it is not Allah who is veiled but you!

29.3 ) What is meant by attaining the contact with Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) is that you make your exit from the sphere of creation, from passion and will and desire, and become securely linked to His action, so that no movement of yours affects either you or His creation unless by His decree, at His command and through His action this is the state of annihilation (fana'), which is another term for that contact.


for the character of the soul: nafs-

 

30. Poor-due, taxes - zakât:

30.1 ) Linguistically zakât means growth, and purification.
The shari`ah definition of zakât is: the name for that which is taken from one's wealth for a specific purpose, ie. to those who are valid recipients, which is a duty upon the one who has the capacity to give.

 

31. Trust in Allah - tawakkul:

All knowledge (al-`ilm) is but a branch of worship (at-ta`abbud)
and all worship is but a branch of abstinence (al-wara`)
and all abstinence is but a branch of trust in Allah (tawakkul)
and trust in Allah (tawakkul) has neither limit nor finite end.
Imam Abu Talib al-Makki, Qut al-qulub

 

32. Knowledge - `ilm:

32.1 All knowledge (al-`ilm) is but a branch of worship (see above 31. )

32.2 Knowledge of four objects:

The objects of knowledge (al-ma`lûmât) are four:

1st. God, Allah who is not defined by any definition, nor limited by any limitation while He is the Absolute Concious Being (al-wujûd al-mutlaq). He is neither the effect (ma`lûl), nor the cause of anything (`illa). On the contrary he exists through His very Essence and His existence is not other than His Essence.

Knowledge of Him consists of knowledge that He exists.
His Essence remains unknown, whereas the Attributes that are attributed to Him are known. Knowledge of the reality of His Essence (haqîqat al-dhât) is impossible and to dwell on it leads to /confusion/.

2nd. The second object of knowledge is the Universal Reality (al-haqîqat al-kulliyya).
This reality is eternal when the Eternal is described by it (it belongs to God), and it is temporally originated when the temporally originated is described by it (it belongs to the world). So it is qualified neither by existence nor non-existence, neither by temporal origination nor eternity (al-qidam). No objects of knowledge - whether eternal or temporally originated - are known until this reality is known, but this reality does not exist until those things described by it exist.
• Eternal existent: it exists without a precedent nonexistence (`adam mutaqaddim), such as the Being of God and His Attributes.
• Temporally originated: it exists by means of something other than itself, such as the existence of everything other than God (mâ siwâ Allâh).
• The likeness of it would be the quality of wood in timber, in a chair etc. 'Woodness' lie within the reality of any of these things. //

3rd. The third object of knowledge is the entire world (al-mulk al-akbar).

4th. The fourth object of knowledge is man.

Ibn Al-`Arabi; from Fûtuhât Al-Makiyya; 118.33 ff

 

33. Knowledge of Shari`ah - fiqh:

33.1 "Fiqh is to know what is for and against oneself."
Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah be pleased with him)

33.2 The word fiqh, originally meaning 'insight', came to signify religious knowledge, canon law,dogmatic or speculative theology and jurisprudence. MAT

34. Afflictions - fitna; fitan:
fitna; fitan: awesome trial(s) of deceptive attractions

When times are such that people lose their faith, when killing will abound, knowledge (that is knowledge of God and religion) is being taken away, including the Muslim who does not know about his or her Islam, then these are the times of great trials of deceptive attractions as foretold by the Messenger of Allah MHMD, who had knowledge of the Unseen* al-ghaib . He warned people and told us what to do, because there will be seemingly important man (and women), seemingly calling to goodness but they are false leaders, blind guiding the blind, leading to Hell. HAU?

What to do:
Guarding your faith imân,
and other actions to take.

1.2) Human Acts of Those Morally Responsible - af'âl al-mukallifîn
(according to the Shâfi'i school where there is no distinction between fard and wâjib except concerning the pilgrimage)

English Arabic How has Allah, the Lawgiver defined the act: someone who performs it: someone who refrains from it:
the
obligatory act
fard that which the Lawgiver strictly requires be done he is rewarded, if it is performed out of obedience to Allah a person who refrains from it without excuse deserves to be punished
the
sunna / recommended act
sunna
or
mandûb
that which the Lawgiver asks be done, but does not strictly require he is rewarded, if it is performed out of obedience to Allah someone who refrains from it is not punished
the
permissible act
mubâh that which the Lawgiver has neither requested nor prohibited the person who does it is not rewarded nor is he punished

though if a person does it to enable him to perform an act of obedience to Allah, then he is rewarded for it

the person who refrains from it is not rewarded or punished

though if a person does such an act to enable him to perform an act of disobedience - he is sinning

the
offensive act
makrûh that which the Lawgiver has interdicted but not strictly forbidden the person who commits it does not deserve to be punished the person who refrains from such an act out of obedience to Allah is rewarded
the
unlawful act
harâm that which the Lawgiver strictly forbids someone who commits an unlawful act deserves punishment someone who refrains from it out of obedience to the command of Allah is rewarded RT-30

more on the five legal categories for human actions in: The Meaning Of Sunna
more on the time for action.
more on islam and action
read: Act in such a way that ... ( hadith)
works are: realization of faith (iman)
can the mind know: if actions are good or bad?
read: Allah's blessings for good works
more on human actions the five legal categories for ~
more here: A Concise Sunni Glossary of Fiqh, H.adîth, Kalâm, and Tas.awwuf





OD: Our definition of certain terms.