Metaphysics 3

The Metaphysical Vision of the World and of Ultimate Reality


Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam, Syed Muhammad Naquib Al Attas


On Metaphysics and the Islamic Intellectual Tradition

Star sprinkled night sky with a shooting star

Not places to be conquered, but for hearts to open up in humility and wonder.

Allahs سبحانه و تعالى says:

{ وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا مَّحْفُوظًا وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ }

{And We made the sky a protected ceiling, but they, from its signs, are turning away.} (21-32)

The Cosmos Is Expanding

Findings in astrophysics of the last century tell us without doubt that the cosmos or the universe is expanding. So apart from the force of gravity, there is a countering force, an outward push.

Also our galaxy is not the only one, there are other galaxies, far off. The number of those other, visible galaxies beyond our own is estimated to be about 200 billion.

If it is held that the universe is expanding, then it must have a beginning from where it started to expand, and it must have an end, even if it were endless (not infinite!).

Modern science did not expect the universe to have a beginning, as scientists followed their purely materialistic worldview, which postulates that there is only matter and energy to explain all that exists. So now modern science finally discovered that in the distant past matter and equally time[1] itself must have had a beginning. So whatever has a beginning cannot create anything, but is instead created.

If matter and time have a beginning and are themselves created ’entities’, then something must have created them and set them into ’motion’. This something we call God - Allah (may His Majesty be exalted).

[1] Both time and space are the result of the creative act that brings the cosmos into existence. (Prolegomena, Attas)

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